✪✪✪ Postmodernism In The XXI Century
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Post-postmodernism: The Zeitgeist of the 22nd Century
In this manner, a solution that is reached in principle in the account of "true infinity" in the Science of Logic' s chapter on "Quality" is repeated in new guises at later stages, all the way to "Spirit" and "ethical life" in the third volume of the Encyclopedia. In this way, Hegel defended the truth in Kantian dualism against reductive or eliminative programs like materialism and empiricism.
Like Plato, with his dualism of soul versus bodily appetites, Kant pursued the mind's ability to question its felt inclinations or appetites and to come up with a standard of "duty" or, in Plato's case, "good" which transcends bodily restrictiveness. Hegel rendered these dualities intelligible by ultimately his argument in the "Quality" chapter of the "Science of Logic". The finite has to become infinite in order to achieve reality. The idea of the absolute excludes multiplicity so the subjective and objective must achieve synthesis to become whole. Finite things do not determine themselves because, as "finite" things, their essential character is determined by their boundaries over against other finite things, so in order to become "real" they must go beyond their finitude "finitude is only as a transcending of itself".
The result of this argument is that finite and infinite—particular and universal, nature and freedom—do not face one another as independent realities, but instead the latter, in each case, is the self-transcending of the former. This evolution was the result of God's desire for complete self-awareness. Modern philosophy, culture and society seemed to Hegel fraught with contradictions and tensions, such as those between the subject and object of knowledge, mind and nature, self and Other , freedom and authority, knowledge and faith, or the Enlightenment and Romanticism.
Hegel's main philosophical project was to take these contradictions and tensions and interpret them as part of a comprehensive, evolving, rational unity that in different contexts he called "the absolute Idea" Science of Logic , sections — or "absolute knowledge" Phenomenology of Spirit , " DD Absolute Knowledge". According to Hegel, this unity evolved through and manifested itself in contradiction and negation. Contradiction and negation have the dynamic quality that every point in each domain of reality — consciousness , history, philosophy, art, nature and society—leads to further development until a rational unity is reached that preserves the contradictions as phases and sub-parts by lifting them up Aufhebung to a higher unity.
This mind comprehends all of these phases and sub-parts as steps in its own process of comprehension. It is rational because the same, underlying, logical , developmental order underlies every domain of reality and self-conscious rational thought, although only in the later stages of development does it come to full self-consciousness. The rational, self-conscious whole is not a thing or being that lies outside of other existing things or minds. Rather, it comes to completion in the philosophical comprehension of individual existing human minds who through their own understanding bring this developmental process to an understanding of itself. Hegel's thought is revolutionary in that it is a philosophy of absolute negation—as long as absolute negation is at the center, systematization remains open, making it possible for human beings to become subjects.
In Hegel's draft manuscripts written during his time at the University of Jena, his notion of "Geist" was tightly bound to the notion of " Aether ", from which he also derived the concepts of space and time , but in his later works after Jena he did not explicitly use his old notion of "Aether". Central to Hegel's conception of knowledge , mind, and reality was identity in difference ; mind externalizes itself in various forms and objects and stands outside or opposed to them and, through recognizing itself in them, is "with itself" in these external manifestations so that they are at one and the same time mind and other-than-mind.
This notion of identity in difference, which is bound up with his conception of contradiction and negativity, is a principal feature differentiating Hegel's thought from other philosophers. Hegel distinguished between civil society and state in his Elements of the Philosophy of Right. On the left, it became the foundation for Karl Marx 's civil society as an economic base ;  to the right, it became a description for all non-state and the state is the peak of the objective spirit aspects of society, including culture, society and politics.
This liberal distinction between political society and civil society was used by Alexis de Tocqueville. While it appears that he felt that a civil society, such as the one in which he lived, was an inevitable step in the dialectic, he allowed for the crushing of other "lesser," not fully realized civil societies as they were not fully conscious of their lack of progress. It was perfectly legitimate in Hegel's eyes for a conqueror, such as Napoleon, to come and destroy that which was not fully realized. Hegel's State is the final culmination of the embodiment of freedom or right Rechte in the Elements of the Philosophy of Right. The State subsumes family and civil society and fulfills them. All three together are called "ethical life" Sittlichkeit.
The State involves three " moments ". In a Hegelian State, citizens both know their place and choose their place. They both know their obligations and choose to fulfill them. An individual's "supreme duty is to be a member of the state" Elements of the Philosophy of Right , section The individual has "substantial freedom in the state". The State is "objective spirit" so "it is only through being a member of the state that the individual himself has objectivity, truth, and ethical life" section Every member loves the State with genuine patriotism, but has transcended simple "team spirit" by reflectively endorsing their citizenship.
According to Hegel, " Heraclitus is the one who first declared the nature of the infinite and first grasped nature as in itself infinite, that is, its essence as process. The origin of philosophy is to be dated from Heraclitus. His is the persistent Idea that is the same in all philosophers up to the present day, as it was the Idea of Plato and Aristotle". According to Hegel, Heraclitus's "obscurity" comes from his being a true in Hegel's terms "speculative" philosopher who grasped the ultimate philosophical truth and therefore expressed himself in a way that goes beyond the abstract and limited nature of common sense and is difficult to grasp by those who operate within common sense. Hegel asserted that, in Heraclitus, he had an antecedent for his logic: "[ Hegel cites a number of fragments of Heraclitus in his Lectures on the History of Philosophy.
Heraclitus did not form any abstract nouns from his ordinary use of "to be" and "to become" and seemed to oppose any identity A to any other identity B, C and so on, which is not-A. However, Hegel interprets not-A as not existing at all, not nothing at all, which cannot be conceived, but an indeterminate or "pure" being without particularity or specificity. For Hegel, the inner movement of reality is the process of God thinking as manifested in the evolution of the universe of nature and thought; Hegel argued that, when fully understood, reality is being thought by God as manifested in a person's comprehension of this process.
Since human thought is the image and fulfillment of God's thought, God can be understood by an analysis of thought and reality. Just as humans continually correct their concept of reality through a dialectical process , God becomes more fully manifested through the dialectical process of becoming. For his god, Hegel does not take the logos of Heraclitus but refers to the nous of Anaxagoras , although he may well have regarded them the same as he continues to refer to god's plan, which is identical to God. Whatever the nous thinks at any time is actual substance and is identical to limited being, but more remains in the substrate of non-being, which is identical to pure or unlimited thought.
The universe as becoming is a combination of being and non-being. The particular is never complete in itself, but in its quest to find completion continually transforms into more comprehensive, complex, self-relating particulars. The essential nature of being-for-itself is that it is free "in itself;" it does not depend on anything else for its being. The limitations represent fetters, which it must constantly cast off as it becomes freer and more self-determining. Although Hegel began his philosophizing with commentary on the Christian religion and often expresses the view that he is a Christian, his ideas are not acceptable to some Christians even though he has had a major influence on 19th- and 20th-century theology. As a graduate of a Protestant seminary, Hegel's theological concerns were reflected in many of his writings and lectures.
His thoughts on the person of Jesus Christ stood out from the theologies of the Enlightenment. In his posthumously published Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion , Part 3 , Hegel is particularly interested in demonstrations of God's existence and the ontological proof. This means that Jesus, as the Son of God, is posited by God over and against himself as other. Hegel sees relational and metaphysical unities between Jesus and God the Father. To Hegel, Jesus is both divine and human. Hegel further attests that God as Jesus not only died, but "[ God rises again to life, and thus things are reversed". The philosopher Walter Kaufmann argued that there was sharp criticism of traditional Christianity in Hegel's early theological writings. Kaufmann also pointed out that Hegel's references to God or to the divine and spirit drew on classical Greek as well as Christian connotations of the terms.
So he, too, sometimes spoke of God and, more often, of the divine; and because he occasionally took pleasure in insisting that he was really closer to this or that Christian tradition than some of the theologians of his time, he has sometimes been understood to have been a Christian. Hegel identified as an orthodox Lutheran and believed his philosophy was consistent with Christianity. Hegel conceived of the immortality of the soul in the following manner in reference to Christianity:  .
Thus the immortality of the soul must not be represented as first entering the sphere of reality only at a later stage; it is the actual present quality of spirit; spirit is eternal, and for this reason is already present. Spirit, as possessed of freedom, does not belong to the sphere of things limited; it, as being what thinks and knows in an absolute way, has the universal for its object; this is eternity, which is not simply duration, as duration can be predicated of mountains, but knowledge.
The eternity of spirit is here brought into consciousness, and is found in this reasoned knowledge, in this very separation, which has reached the infinitude of being-for-self, and which is no longer entangled in what is natural, contingent, and external. This eternity of Spirit in itself means that Spirit is, to begin with, potential; but the next standpoint implies that Spirit ought to be what it is in its essential and complete nature, in-and-for-itself. Spirit must reflect upon itself, and in this way disunion arises, it must not remain at the point at which it is seen not to be what it is potentially, but must become adequate to its Concept, it must become universal Spirit. Regarded from the standpoint of division or disunion, its potential Being is for it an Other, and it itself is natural will; it is divided within itself, and this division is so far its feeling or consciousness of a contradiction, and there is thus given along with it the necessity for the abolition of the contradiction.
Spirit is immortal; it is eternal; and it is immortal and eternal in virtue of the fact that it is infinite, that it has no such spatial finitude as we associate with the body; when we speak of it being five feet in height, two feet in breadth and thickness, that it is not the Now of time, that the content of its knowledge does not consist of these countless midges, that its volition and freedom have not to do with the infinite mass of existing obstacles, nor of the aims and activities which such resisting obstacles and hindrances have to encounter.
The infinitude of spirit is its inwardness, in an abstract sense its pure inwardness, and this is its thought, and this abstract thought is a real present infinitude, while its concrete inwardness consists in the fact that this thought is Spirit. Hegel seemed to have an ambivalent relationship with magic , myth and Paganism. He formulated an early philosophical example of a disenchantment narrative, arguing that Judaism was responsible both for realizing the existence of Geist and, by extension, for separating nature from ideas of spiritual and magical forces and challenging polytheism.
Hegel continued to develop his thoughts on religion both in terms of how it was to be given a 'wissenschaftlich', or "theoretically rigorous," account in the context of his own "system," and how a fully modern religion could be understood. In addition to some articles published early in his career and during his Berlin period, Hegel published four major works during his lifetime:. During the last ten years of his life, Hegel did not publish another book but thoroughly revised the Encyclopedia second edition, ; third, A number of other works on the philosophy of history , religion , aesthetics and the history of philosophy  were compiled from the lecture notes of his students and published posthumously.
Hegel's posthumous works have had remarkable influence on subsequent works on religion, aesthetics, and history because of the comprehensive accounts of the subject matters considered within the lectures, with Heidegger for example in Poetry, Language, Thought characterizing Hegel's Lectures on Aesthetics as the "most comprehensive reflection on the nature of art that the West possesses—comprehensive because it stems from metaphysics. There are views of Hegel's thought as the summit of early 19th-century German philosophical idealism.
It profoundly impacted many future philosophical schools, including those opposed to Hegel's specific dialectical idealism , such as existentialism , the historical materialism of Marx, historism and British Idealism. Hegel's influence was immense in philosophy and other sciences. In the United States, Hegel's influence is evident in pragmatism. The more recent movement of communitarianism has a strong Hegelian influence. Some of Hegel's writing was intended for those with advanced knowledge of philosophy, although his Encyclopedia was intended as a textbook in a university course. Nevertheless, Hegel assumed that his readers are well-versed in Western philosophy.
Those without this background would be advised to begin with one of the many general introductions to his thought. As is always the case, difficulties are magnified for those reading him in translation. In fact, Hegel himself argued, in his Science of Logic , that German was particularly conducive to philosophical thought. According to Walter Kaufmann, the basic idea of Hegel's works, especially the Phenomenology of Spirit , is that a philosopher should not "confine him or herself to views that have been held but penetrate these to the human reality they reflect". In other words, it is not enough to consider propositions, or even the content of consciousness; "it is worthwhile to ask in every instance what kind of spirit would entertain such propositions, hold such views, and have such a consciousness.
Every outlook in other words, is to be studied not merely as an academic possibility but as an existential reality". Some historians have spoken of Hegel's influence as represented by two opposing camps. Today this faction continues among conservative Protestants, such as the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod , which was founded by missionaries from Germany when the Hegelian Right was active. The Left Hegelians , also known as the Young Hegelians, interpreted Hegel in a revolutionary sense, leading to an advocation of atheism in religion and liberal democracy in politics. Recent studies have questioned this paradigm. Critiques of Hegel offered by the Left Hegelians radically diverted Hegel's thinking into new directions and eventually came to form a large part of the literature on and about Hegel.
The Left Hegelians also influenced Marxism, which has in turn inspired global movements, from the Russian Revolution , the Chinese Revolution and myriad of practices up until the present moment. Twentieth-century interpretations of Hegel were mostly shaped by British idealism , logical positivism , Marxism and Fascism. According to Benedetto Croce , the Italian Fascist Giovanni Gentile "holds the honor of having been the most rigorous neo-Hegelian in the entire history of Western philosophy and the dishonor of having been the official philosopher of Fascism in Italy".
In accounts of Hegelianism formed prior to the Hegel renaissance, Hegel's dialectic was often characterized as a three-step process, " thesis, antithesis, synthesis "; a "thesis" e. However, Hegel used this classification only once and he attributed the terminology to Kant. The terminology was largely developed earlier by Fichte. The "thesis—antithesis—synthesis" approach erroneously gives the sense that things or ideas are contradicted or opposed by things that come from outside them. To the contrary, the fundamental notion of Hegel's dialectic is that things or ideas have internal contradictions. For Hegel, analysis or comprehension of a thing or idea reveals that underneath its apparently simple identity or unity is an underlying inner contradiction.
This contradiction leads to the dissolution of the thing or idea in the simple form in which it presented to a higher-level, more complex thing or idea that more adequately incorporates the contradiction. The triadic form that appears in many places in Hegel e. For Hegel, reason is "speculative" — not "dialectical". According to their argument, although Hegel referred to "the two elemental considerations: first, the idea of freedom as the absolute and final aim; secondly, the means for realising it, i.
Furthermore, in Hegel's language the "dialectical" aspect or "moment" of thought and reality, by which things or thoughts turn into their opposites or have their inner contradictions brought to the surface, what he called Aufhebung , is only preliminary to the "speculative" and not "synthesizing" aspect or "moment", which grasps the unity of these opposites or contradiction. It is now widely agreed that explaining Hegel's philosophy in terms of thesis—antithesis—synthesis is inaccurate. Nevertheless, this interpretation survives in a number of scholarly works. In the last half of the 20th century, Hegel's philosophy underwent a major renaissance. This was due to a the rediscovery and re-evaluation of Hegel as a possible philosophical progenitor of Marxism by philosophically oriented Marxists; b a resurgence of Hegel's historical perspective; and c an increasing recognition of the importance of his dialectical method.
In Reason and Revolution , Herbert Marcuse made the case for Hegel as a revolutionary and criticized Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse 's thesis that Hegel was a totalitarian. Beginning in the s, Anglo-American Hegel scholarship has challenged the traditional interpretation of Hegel as offering a metaphysical system: this has also been the approach of Z. Pelczynski and Shlomo Avineri.
This view, sometimes referred to as the "non-metaphysical option", has influenced many major English-language studies of Hegel. Late 20th-century literature in Western Theology that is friendly to Hegel includes works by such writers as Walter Kaufmann , Dale M. Schlitt , Theodore Geraets , Philip M. Two prominent American philosophers, John McDowell and Robert Brandom sometimes referred to as the " Pittsburgh Hegelians" , have produced philosophical works with a marked Hegelian influence. In a separate Canadian context, James Doull 's philosophy is deeply Hegelian.
Beginning in the s after the fall of the Soviet Union, a fresh reading of Hegel took place in the West. Marx plays little-to-no role in these new readings. Criticism of Hegel has been widespread in the 19th and the 20th centuries. Ayer have challenged Hegelian philosophy from a variety of perspectives. Among the first to take a critical view of Hegel's system was the 19th-century German group known as the Young Hegelians , which included Feuerbach, Marx, Engels and their followers. In particular, Russell considered "almost all" of Hegel's doctrines to be false. Hegel's contemporary Schopenhauer was particularly critical and wrote of Hegel's philosophy as "a pseudo-philosophy paralyzing all mental powers, stifling all real thinking".
A guardian fearing that his ward might become too intelligent for his schemes might prevent this misfortune by innocently suggesting the reading of Hegel. Karl Popper wrote that "there is so much philosophical writing especially in the Hegelian school which may justly be criticised as meaningless verbiage". Popper further proposed that Hegel's philosophy served not only as an inspiration for communist and fascist totalitarian governments of the 20th century, whose dialectics allow for any belief to be construed as rational simply if it could be said to exist. Kaufmann and Shlomo Avineri have criticized Popper's theories about Hegel. Voegelin argued that Hegel should be understood not as a philosopher, but as a "sorcerer", i.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Hegel. German philosopher — For other uses, see Hegel disambiguation. Portrait by Jakob Schlesinger , Berlin , Kingdom of Prussia. Continental philosophy German idealism Objective idealism Absolute idealism Hegelianism Historicism  Naturphilosophie Epistemic coherentism  Conceptualism  Empirical realism  Coherence theory of truth . Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Main article: Science of Logic. See also: Porphyrian tree. See also: Civil society.
See also: Hegelianism. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Thesis, antithesis, synthesis. Main article: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel bibliography. Philosophy portal. Daniel Breazeale. In Breazeale, Daniel; Fichte, Johann Fichte: Early Philosophical Writings. Cornell University Press. The Coherence Theory of Truth. Stanford University. II, Meiner, , pp. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 5 February The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge University Press. Angeles, Prometheus Books, New York: Barnes and Noble. Weak Atheism: What's the Difference? The Review of Politics. Irish Times.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Conference on Naturalism, Theism and the Scientific Enterprise. Department of Philosophy, The University of Texas. Internet Infidels , Secular Web Library. Retrieved on APR J Language, Truth and Logic. In a footnote, Ayer attributes this view to "Professor H. In: Maryniarczyk, Andrzej. Acessado em 9 de abril de Internet Infidels, Secular Web Library.
Gunasekara, «The Buddhist Attitude to God. Grove Press, Pages 51— American Chronicle. A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. University of Calcutta: Philosophy East and West. Plato's Theology. Cornell University Press. Cicero, Marcus Tullius: De natura deorum. Comments and English text by Richard D. Thomas Library, Bryn Mawr College, , page 3. SUNY Press. Columbia University Press. Consultado em 9 de abril de The music of the 21st century is mostly post-modernist , drawing on many different styles and open to a great many influences. Post-modernism continues to exert an influence on composers in the 21st century. Polystylism and musical eclecticism are growing trends in the 21st century. Composers have often started their musical career in one discipline and have later migrated to or embraced others, while retaining important elements from the former discipline.
In some cases, a composer now labelled "classical" may have started out in another discipline. For example, a specific label for John Zorn 's music is difficult to choose: he started out as a performance artist and moved through various genres including jazz, hardcore punk , film music , and classical, and often embraces Jewish musical elements. All of these diverse styles appear in his works. Elements of modernism , spectral music and electronic music are combined with elements of the folk music of Eastern Europe and the resulting works are often influenced by the modality of Indian ragas.
Tansy Davies 's music also fuses elements of pop and classical music. Prince and Iannis Xenakis are both major influences. Composers are influenced from around the world. For example, in , La Monte Young , along with Marian Zazeela, and senior disciple Jung Hee Choi founded the Just Alap Raga Ensemble which performs Indian classical music of the Kirana Gharana and merges the traditions of Western and Hindustani classical music, Young applying his own compositional approach to traditional raga performance, form, and technique. Other composers have also drawn upon diverse cultural and religious influences.
For example, John Tavener died drew his inspiration from eastern mysticism and the music of the Orthodox Church  and James MacMillan is influenced by both traditional Scottish music and his own Roman Catholic faith. The influence of electronic music, numerology, unusual instrumentation and improvisational techniques are also apparent. He composes for the lute , orpharion and torban , and is an advocate of musical historicism and has collaborated with Hans Kockelmans and the New York Bandura Ensemble led by Julian Kytasty.
His works often incorporate audiovisual elements . Composers find inspiration from other sources, too. The music of John Luther Adams an Alaskan environmentalist and no relation to the other John Adams discussed in this article is informed by nature, especially that of his native Alaska. His Pulitzer Prize-winning symphony Become Ocean was inspired by climate change.
Extended techniques such as over-pressure bowings coexist with lyrical folk songs and synthesized sounds. Composers have even created mashups , more commonly found in pop music. Jeremy Sams ' The Enchanted Island is one example: he draws from Handel , Vivaldi , Rameau , and other Baroque composers to create a combination of pasticcio and musical collage which also combines the baroque and the modern in its staging and costume.
According to A History of Western Music , "it calls into question ideas of authorship and originality, making it a thoroughly postmodern work". The music of Osvaldo Golijov often combines the classical, modern and popular traditions within a single work juxtaposing contrasting styles—an important trend in the music of the s onward. Chamber opera is an important type of opera developed in the mid-twentieth century. They use smaller scale forces than regular operas. Adams' On the Transmigration of Souls is a choral piece commemorating the victims of the 11 September attacks  for which he won the Pulitzer Prize for Music in Golijov, being a Jew and Latin American, offered a different perspective on the Passion: he drew on African-influenced traditions from Cuba and Brazil, flamenco and Baroque music to create a work that enacts the story as a ritual through voices, dance and movement.
Henri Dutilleux 's last works died include Correspondances and Le temps l'horloge , both of which are song cycles. Oliver Knussen 's Violin Concerto, Op. It was written in memory of her brother and features flute her instrument and clarinet his instrument in dialogue in their upper registers. The work evokes Debussy 's more accessible form of modernism : parallel triads in strings and brass; changes in pitch set demarcating musical units, such as phrases , and providing a sense of harmonic progression; and Debussy's distinctive orchestral colour. Elliott Carter died has written a large body of music for chamber groups and soloist since These include Tintinnabulation for percussion sextet, Double Trio for trumpet, trombone, percussion, piano, violin and cello, a string trio, Hiyoku for two clarinets, as well as several new pieces in his Retracing and Figment series for soloists and Two Thoughts about the Piano.
Stockhausen's last major work, the unfinished cycle of twenty-four compositions collectively titled Klang , is predominantly made up of chamber-music pieces. At his death in , Davies also left an unfinished final String Quartet, Op. The German composer Wolfgang Rihm extended his list of string quartets, first with the Twelfth Quartet , the brief Fetzen 2 , and a Quartettstudie —04 , then with a revised version of String Quartet No. Electronic , electroacoustic , and computer music , pioneered in the 20th century, continue to develop in the 21st century. One of the major figures in the early development of electronic music, Karlheinz Stockhausen, composed his last electronic works— Cosmic Pulses and eight further pieces derived from it—as hours 13 to 21 of his Klang cycle — Mario Davidovsky has extended his series Synchronisms , which in live performance incorporate both acoustic instruments and electroacoustic sounds played from a tape.
Bates' The B-Sides is a symphony in five movements for electronica and orchestra and Hassell's music exploits unusual electronic manipulation of the trumpet sound.Pippin, Robert B. Artigo Department of Religious Studies, University Postmodernism In The XXI Century Alabama. In Character Analysis Of A Raisin In The Sun United States, Postmodernism In The XXI Century influence is evident in pragmatism. Georg Wilhelm Postmodernism In The XXI Century Hegel.