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Colonial Issues



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If the reviewing court concludes that the agency's actions were so arbitrary as to be out-side any reasonable interpretation of the law, the court may overturn the agency's decision or remand the case back to the agency for further proceedings in accordance with the court's decision. A reviewing court's determination that an agency acted in an arbitrary manner will often depend on the technical requirements of the governing law. For example, courts are often asked to determine whether a federal agency has acted arbitrarily under the national environ-mental policy act NEPA.

In one case the Ninth Circuit ruled that the Transportation Department acted arbitrarily under NEPA, when it failed to prepare an environmental impact statement, failed to consider whether its regulations would have violated air quality limits, and failed to perform localized analyses for areas most likely to be affected by increased truck traffic. Public Citizen v. Department of Transportation , F. Most often it is used in reference to a judge's ruling. What depends on the will of the judge, not regulated or established by law.

Bacon Aphor. In all well adjusted systems of law every thing is regulated, and nothing arbitrary can be allowed; but there is a discretion which is sometimes allowed by law which leaves the judge free to act as he pleases to a certain extent. See Discretion. An arbitrary law is one made by the legislator simply because he wills it, and is not founded in the nature of things; such law, for example, as the tariff law, which may be high or low. This term is used in opposition to immutable. Related to arbitrary: arbitrarily , Arbitrary constant. Arbitrary Irrational; capricious. West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Hill and Kathleen T. The company, which operates pipelines for gasoline, jet fuel and other refined petroleum products, halted pipeline operations after discovering the hack.

Colonial said it "proactively took certain systems offline to contain the threat , which temporarily halted all pipeline operations, and affected some of our IT systems. In a Wall Street Journal article published May 19, Blount acknowledged the decision was "controversial" but said it was in the country's best interest to get the pipeline running again. The company paid about 75 bitcoin in exchange for decryption software, The Journal reported.

Colonial services seven airports and operates in 14 states. Its system is the biggest in the US, the company says, covering more than 5, miles. A legend on company tanks featured on its website reads: "America's Energy Lifeline. The FBI blamed Darkside, a ransomware group, for the attack. The law enforcement agency said it was notified of the hack on May 7 and investigated alongside the company and other government agencies. As of May 14, Darkside appeared to have disbanded , according to The Wall Street Journal, which reported that the group told associates it had lost access to the infrastructure it needs for its activities. The group said law enforcement actions had prompted its decision, according to the Journal. Cybereason, a security company based in Boston, wrote that Darkside focuses on targets in English-speaking countries and avoids operations in "former Soviet bloc nations.

Pretty common. City governments around the US, including Baltimore's and Atlanta's , have been slammed by ransomware attacks. Ireland's health service was attacked. He then names the island New Amsterdam. Plymouth Colony and New Amsterdam begin trading. Sir Edwin Sandys — sends a shipload of approximately 1, kidnapped children from England to the Virginia colony; it is one of several problematic programs used by Sandys and others wherein unemployed, vagrants, and other undesirable multitudes were sent to the New World to offset horrifying mortality rates in the colonies.

June A group of settlers led by John Endecott settles at Salem. This is the beginning of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The Dutch West India Company begins to give land grants to patrons who will bring at least 50 settlers to the colonies. The founder of Maine, Ferdinand Gorges ca. This is the first great wave of immigration from England. After he arrives, Winthrop begins writing the notebooks of his life and experiences in the colony, part of which will be published as the History of New England in and Boston is officially established.

May: Despite the Massachusetts Bay Colony charter, it is decided that only church members are allowed to become freemen who are allowed to vote for colony officials. In the Massachusetts Bay Colony issues such as no taxation without representation and representative government are beginning to be addressed. Since Baltimore is Roman Catholic, the right to religious freedom is granted to Maryland. October 8: The first town government is organized in the city of Dorchester within the Massachusetts Bay Colony. April A naval battle occurs between Virginia and Maryland, one of several confrontations over boundary disputes between the two colonies.

The colony refuses to yield to this, however. Roger Williams is ordered banished from Massachusetts after criticizing the colony and promoting the idea of separation of church and state. The Town Act is passed in the Massachusetts Bay general court giving towns the ability to govern themselves to some extent, including the power to allocate land and take care of local business. Thomas Hooker — arrives in Hartford, Connecticut, and founds the first church of the territory. September 8: Harvard University is founded.

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