⒈ Martin Luthers Accomplishments

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Martin Luthers Accomplishments



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Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. - Vida y Logros, Life and Accomplishments

Luther mendasarkan posisinya pada doktrin predestinasi dalam Efesus —10 seturut pemahamannya. Menentang ajaran Katolik yang memandang tindakan-tindakan benar orang percaya dilakukan dalam kerja sama dengan Allah, Luther menuliskan bahwa umat Kristen menerima sepenuhnya kebenaran tersebut dari luar diri mereka. Menurutnya, kebenaran demikian bukan sekadar berasal dari Kristus tetapi sebenarnya adalah kebenaran Kristus, diperhitungkan kepada umat Kristen bukan ditanamkan ke dalam diri mereka melalui iman. Masuknya Ia ke dalam Firdaus tidak lain adalah penemuan tentang "kebenaran Allah" — suatu penemuan bahwa "orang benar" yang dibicarakan dalam Alkitab seperti dalam Roma hidup oleh iman.

Pasal yang pertama dan utama adalah ini: Yesus Kristus, Allah dan Tuhan kita, mati untuk dosa-dosa kita dan dibangkitkan kembali untuk pembenaran kita Roma — Ia sendiri adalah Anak Domba Allah yang menghapus dosa-dosa dunia Yohanes , dan Allah telah menimpakan kepada-Nya kejahatan kita semua Yesaya Semua orang telah berdosa dan dibenarkan secara cuma-cuma, tanpa perbuatan-perbuatan dan jasa-jasa mereka sendiri, oleh kasih karunia-Nya, melalui penebusan yang terdapat dalam Kristus Yesus, dalam darah-Nya Roma — Ini perlu diyakini. Ini tidak dapat diperoleh atau dicapai dengan perbuatan, hukum, atau jasa apa saja. Karenanya jelas dan pasti bahwa iman ini saja membenarkan kita Tidak ada sesuatupun dari pasal ini dapat dilepaskan atau ditaklukkan, sekalipun langit dan bumi jatuh Markus Penemuan kembali Luther atas "Kristus dan keselamatan-Nya" merupakan yang pertama dari dua poin yang menjadi landasan bagi Reformasi Protestan.

Protesnya menentang penjualan indulgensi didasarkan pada hal tersebut. Ia mengadakan pemeriksaan tesis tersebut untuk melihat kemungkinan adanya penyesatan, dan, pada Desember , meneruskannya ke Roma. Luther belakangan menulis, "paus juga terlibat, karena separuhnya mengalir ke pembangunan Gereja St Petrus di Roma". Paus Leo X terbiasa menghadapi para reformis dan penganut bidah, [51] dan ia menanggapi "dengan sangat hati-hati sebagaimana mestinya". Utusan pertama, seorang teolog Dominikan yang bernama Silvestro Mazzolini , mengonsep satu kasus bidah terhadap Luther, yang kemudian dipanggil sang paus ke Roma. Di sana, selama periode tiga hari pada Oktober , Luther melakukan pembelaan diri ketika menghadapi pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang diajukan legatus kepausan , Kardinal Kayetanus.

Hak paus untuk mempermaklumkan indulgensi merupakan pokok perdebatan antara kedua orang tersebut. Alih-alih sekadar menulis tesisnya, konfrontasi Luther dengan Gereja menjadikannya sebagai seorang musuh paus. Pada Januari , di Altenburg , Sachsen, Karl von Miltitz selaku nunsius kepausan mengadopsi suatu pendekatan yang lebih mendamaikan. Luther memberikan sejumlah konsesi kepada sang nunsius, yang adalah kerabat dari Elektor Friedrich III, dan berjanji untuk tetap diam jika para seterunya juga melakukannya. Pada Juni dan Juli , ia mengadakan suatu acara debat di Leipzig dengan kolega Luther, Andreas Karlstadt , dan mengundang Luther untuk berbicara.

Penegasan Luther yang paling berani dalam perdebatan tersebut adalah bahwa Matius tidak memberi hak kepada paus untuk secara eksklusif menafsirkan kitab suci, dan karenanya tidak ada paus ataupun konsili Gereja yang tidak dapat salah. Sejak saat itu, ia mengabdikan diri untuk mengalahkan Luther. Pada 15 Juni , Paus Leo X memperingatkan Luther dengan bulla kepausan Exsurge Domine bahwa ia akan dikenakan sanksi ekskomunikasi apabila tidak menarik kembali 41 kalimat dari tulisan-tulisannya, termasuk 95 Tesis , dalam waktu 60 hari.

Pada musim gugur tahun itu, Johann Eck mempermaklumkan bulla tersebut di Meissen dan kota-kota lainnya. Karl von Miltitz , seorang nunsius kepausan, berupaya menengahi dengan suatu solusi, tetapi Luther, yang telah mengirimkan salinan Tentang Kebebasan Seorang Kristen kepada sang paus pada bulan Oktober, membakar dekretal-dekretal dan bulla tersebut di hadapan publik di Wittenberg pada 10 Desember , [63] suatu tindakan yang ia bela dalam tulisan-tulisannya, Mengapa Paus dan Buku Terbarunya Dibakar dan Penegasan-Penegasan tentang Semua Pasal. Penegakan larangan terhadap 95 Tesis jatuh ke tangan otoritas sekuler.

Pada 18 April , Luther tampil sebagaimana diperintahkan kepadanya di hadapan Sidang Worms. Ini merupakan suatu majelis umum para perwakilan wilayah dalam Kekaisaran Romawi Suci yang berlangsung di Worms , suatu kota di tepi barat Sungai Rhein. Pangeran Friedrich III, Elektor Sachsen , beroleh suatu pas bagi Luther untuk melintas dengan aman menuju dan meninggalkan pertemuan tersebut. Johann Eck , yang berbicara atas nama Kekaisaran sebagai asisten Uskup Agung Trier , memperlihatkan kepada Luther salinan-salinan dari tulisan-tulisannya yang diletakkan di atas meja dan menanyakan apakah buku-buku tersebut miliknya, dan apakah ia berpegang teguh pada isinya.

Luther mengonfirmasikan bahwa ia adalah pengarang kesemuanya, namun ia meminta waktu untuk memikirkan jawaban atas pertanyaan kedua. Ia dilaporkan berdoa, berkonsultasi dengan teman-temannya, dan memberikan tanggapannya esok hari:. Kecuali saya diyakinkan dengan kesaksian dari Kitab Suci ataupun dengan alasan yang jelas sebab saya tidak percaya pada paus ataupun konsili-konsili saja, karena diketahui bahwa mereka kerap keliru dan saling bertentangan , saya terikat dengan Kitab Suci yang telah saya kutip dan nurani saya ditawan dengan Firman Allah.

Saya tidak dapat dan tidak akan menarik kembali apapun, karena tidaklah tenteram ataupun benar melawan nurani. Semoga Allah menolong saya. Di akhir perkataannya, Luther mengangkat tangannya "dengan salut tradisional seorang kesatria yang memenangkan suatu pertarungan. Alkitab sendiri merupakan rangkaian sumber daya yang darinya masing-masing inovator telah menarik argumen-argumennya yang memperdaya. Adalah dengan teks-teks Alkitab Pelagius dan Arius mempertahankan doktrin-doktrin mereka. Arius, misalnya, mendapati negasi dari kekekalan Sang Firman—suatu kekekalan yang Anda akui, dalam ayat Perjanjian Baru ini— [Yusuf] tidak bersetubuh dengan dia sampai ia melahirkan anaknya laki-laki ; dan ia mengatakan, dengan cara yang sama seperti yang Anda katakan, bahwa bagian ini mengikat dirinya.

Ketika para bapa Konsili Konstanz mengecam proposisi Jan Hus ini— Gereja Yesus Kristus hanyalah himpunan dari yang terpilih , mereka mengecam suatu kekeliruan; karena Gereja, sebagaimana seorang ibu yang baik, merangkul dalam pelukannya semua yang memikul nama Kristen, semua yang dipanggil untuk menikmati kebahagiaan surgawi. Luther menolak untuk menarik kembali tulisan-tulisannya. Ia kadang-kadang juga disitir mengatakan: "Di sini saya berdiri. Saya tidak dapat berbuat lain". Para akademisi belakangan ini menganggap bahwa bukti untuk kata-kata tersebut tidak dapat dipercaya, karena disisipkan sebelum "Semoga Allah menolong saya" hanya dalam versi-versi pidato di kemudian hari dan tidak tercatat dalam laporan-laporan saksi mata persidangan.

Selama lima hari berikutnya, diadakan pertemuan-pertemuan privat untuk menentukan nasib Luther. Sang kaisar menyajikan draf akhir Maklumat Worms pada 25 Mei , yang menyatakan Luther sebagai seorang pelanggar hukum , melarang peredaran karya-karya tulisnya, dan menghendaki penangkapan dirinya: "Kami ingin ia ditangkap dan dihukum sebagai seorang penganut bidah dengan reputasi buruk. Hilangnya Luther saat ia kembali ke Wittenberg telah direncanakan. Friedrich III mengatur skenario pencegatan di hutan dekat Wittenberg dalam perjalanan pulangnya Luther, oleh para penunggang kuda bertopeng yang meniru para perampok jalanan. Mereka membawa Luther masuk ke dalam pengamanan Kastel Wartburg di Eisenach.

Di antara karya tulisnya terdapat satu serangan baru terhadap Uskup Agung Albertus dari Mainz , yang ia buat merasa bersalah sehingga menghentikan penjualan indulgensi dalam keuskupan-keuskupannya, [72] dan "Sanggahan atas Argumen Latomus," yang di dalamnya ia memaparkan prinsip pembenaran kepada Jacobus Latomus , seorang teolog ortodoks dari Leuven. Dalam karya tulis tersebut, salah satu pernyataannya yang paling tegas terkait iman , ia berargumen bahwa setiap perbuatan baik yang dimaksudkan untuk menarik hati Allah adalah dosa. Pada 1 Agustus , Luther menulis kepada Melanchthon dengan tema yang sama: "Jadilah seorang berdosa, dan biarlah dosa-dosamu bertambah kuat, namun biarlah kepercayaanmu kepada Kristus bertambah lebih kuat, dan bersukacitalah dalam Kristus yang adalah pemenang atas dosa, kematian, dan dunia.

Kita akan berbuat dosa selagi kita berada di sini, karena hidup ini bukanlah suatu tempat keadilan berada. Pada musim panas tahun , Luther memperluas sasarannya dari kesalehan-kesalehan individual, seperti indulgensi dan ziarah, hingga meliputi doktrin-doktrin di jantung praktik Gereja. Dalam Tentang Penghapusan Misa Privat , ia mengecam sebagai penyembahan berhala gagasan bahwa misa merupakan suatu pengurbanan, seraya menyatakan bahwa misa merupakan suatu anugerah atau pemberian, untuk diterima dengan ucapan syukur oleh seluruh jemaat.

Ia meyakinkan para rahib dan biarawati kalau mereka dapat melanggar kaul-kaul sumpah religius mereka tanpa berdosa, karena ia beranggapan bahwa kaul merupakan suatu upaya yang haram dan sia-sia untuk memperoleh keselamatan. Pada , Luther banyak menyinggung nubuat, yang di dalamnya ia memperluas dasar-dasar Reformasi Protestan, menempatkan dasar-dasar itu pada iman profetik. Minat utamanya berpusat pada nubuat Tanduk Kecil dalam Daniel —12, 23— Antikristus dalam 2 Tesalonika 2 diidentifikasinya sebagai kuasa kepausan.

Tanduk Kecil dalam Daniel 7, yang ia tafsirkan timbul dalam wilayah Kekaisaran Romawi yang terbagi-bagi, dilihatnya sebagai Kekaisaran Turki ataupun kepausan. Luther membuat pernyataan-pernyataannya dari Wartburg sehubungan dengan perkembangan pesat di Wittenberg, situasi yang tetap ia pantau sepenuhnya. Andreas Karlstadt , yang didukung oleh seorang mantan anggota tarekat Agustinian bernama Gabriel Zwilling , memulai suatu program reformasi radikal di sana pada Juni , melampaui apa yang dapat dibayangkan oleh Luther.

Reformasi-reformasi tersebut memicu pergolakan, termasuk suatu pemberontakan oleh para frater Agustinian melawan prior mereka, penghancuran patung-patung dan gambar-gambar di berbagai gereja, serta pengecaman secara terbuka terhadap jabatan hakim magistrat. Luther kembali secara diam-diam ke Wittenberg pada 6 Maret Ia menulis kepada sang elektor: "Selama ketidakhadiran saya. Setan telah memasuki kandang domba saya, dan melakukan tindakan-tindakan penghancuran yang tidak dapat saya perbaiki dengan menulis, selain dengan firman hidup dan kehadiran pribadi saya semata. Dalam khotbah-khotbah tersebut, ia menekankan yang dipandangnya sebagai keutamaan dari nilai-nilai inti Kristen seperti kasih, kesabaran, karya amal, dan kebebasan, serta mengingatkan warga untuk memercayai firman Allah dan bukan melakukan kekerasan untuk menghasilkan perubahan yang diperlukan.

Tahukah kamu apa yang dipikirkan Iblis ketika ia melihat manusia menggunakan kekerasan untuk menyebarkan Injil? Ia duduk dengan tangan terlipat di balik api neraka, serta berkata dengan tatapan ganas dan seringai mengerikan: "Ah, betapa bijaksananya orang-orang gila ini memainkan permainanku! Biarlah mereka melanjutkannya; aku akan menuai keuntungannya. Kubersuka dalamnya. Dampak dari campur tangan Luther segera dirasakan. Setelah khotbah keenam, Jerome Schrurf, yuris Wittenberg, menulis kepada sang elektor: "Oh, sukacita apa yang telah disebarkan Dr. Martin di antara kita! Kata-katanya, melalui belas kasih ilahi, sedang membawa kembali orang-orang yang tersesat setiap hari ke jalan kebenaran. Luther selanjutnya mulai menghapuskan ataupun memodifikasi praktik-praktik jemaatnya yang baru.

Dengan bekerja bersama pihak berwenang untuk memulihkan ketertiban umum, ia mengisyaratkan penemuannya kembali sebagai suatu kekuatan konservatif dalam Reformasi Protestan. Terlepas dari keberhasilannya di Wittenberg, Luther tidak berhasil membendung radikalisme yang berkembang luas di daerah sekitarnya. Sebelumnya, sejak abad ke, pernah terjadi beberapa pemberontakan berskala lebih kecil oleh kaum tani. Luther disebut bersimpati dengan beberapa keluhan kaum tani tersebut, seperti yang ia tunjukkan dalam tanggapannya terhadap Dua Belas Pasal pada Mei , namun ia mengingatkan para pihak yang dirugikan untuk mematuhi otoritas sekuler.

Dalam Melawan Gerombolan Petani Bernafsu Mencuri dan Membunuh , yang ditulis sekembalinya Luther ke Wittenberg, ia memberikan interpretasinya tentang ajaran Injil terkait kekayaan, mengecam kekerasan tersebut sebagai pekerjaan iblis, dan meminta para bangsawan untuk menundukkan para pemberontak layaknya "seseorang harus membunuh seekor anjing gila": [93]. Karena itu biarlah setiap orang yang bisa, menghantam, membunuh, dan menikam, secara sembunyi-sembunyi ataupun secara terbuka, mengingat bahwa tidak ada yang dapat lebih berbisa, menyakitkan, ataupun seperti iblis daripada seorang pemberontak Karena baptisan tidak membuat manusia bebas tubuhnya dan kepunyaannya, tetapi jiwanya; dan Injil tidak menjadikan barang-barang dimiliki bersama, kecuali dalam kasus orang-orang yang, dari kehendak bebas mereka sendiri, melakukan apa yang rasul-rasul dan murid-murid lakukan dalam Kisah 4 [—37].

Mereka tidak menuntut, seperti yang dilakukan para petani kita yang sinting dalam amukan mereka, agar barang orang-orang lain—dari Pilatus dan Herodes—mesti menjadi milik bersama, tetapi hanya barang mereka sendiri. Namun, para petani kita ingin menjadikan milik bersama barang orang-orang lain, dan menyimpan milik mereka bagi mereka sendiri. Orang-orang Kristen yang baik mereka! Kupikir tidak ada satu setan pun yang tertinggal di neraka; mereka semua telah pergi merasuk petani-petani itu.

Omong kosong mereka telah kelewat batas. Luther membela penentangannya terhadap para pemberontak dengan tiga alasan. Pertama, dalam memilih kekerasan daripada ketaatan sesuai hukum pada pemerintah sekuler, mereka mengabaikan nasihat Kristus supaya "Berikanlah kepada Kaisar apa yang wajib kamu berikan kepada Kaisar"; Rasul Paulus menulis dalam Roma —7 bahwa semua pemerintah ditetapkan oleh Allah dan karena itu tidak semestinya dilawan.

Petunjuk dari Alkitab ini membentuk landasan bagi doktrin yang dikenal sebagai hak ilahi raja-raja , atau hak ilahi pangeran-pangeran dalam kasus Jerman. Kedua, tindakan-tindakan kekerasan memberontak, merampok, dan menjarah, menempatkan para petani "di luar hukum Allah dan Kekaisaran", sehingga mereka dianggapnya layak mengalami "kematian dalam tubuh dan jiwa, jika hanya menjadi para penyamun dan pembunuh". Terakhir, Luther menuduh para pemberontak melakukan penghujatan karena mereka menyebut diri "saudara-saudara Kristen" dan melakukan tindakan-tindakan berdosa di bawah panji Injil. Tanpa dukungan Luther dalam melakukan pemberontakan tersebut, banyak pemberontak yang meletakkan senjata mereka; yang lain lagi merasa dikhianati.

Martin Luther menikahi Katharina von Bora , salah seorang di antara 12 biarawati yang ia bantu melarikan diri dari biara Sistersien Nimbschen pada bulan April , ketika ia mengatur supaya mereka diselundupkan dengan tong-tong ikan haring. Beberapa imam dan mantan anggota tarekat religius telah terlebih dahulu menikah, termasuk Andreas Karlstadt dan Justus Jonas, namun pernikahan Luther menjadi suatu indikasi resmi perkawinan klerikal di kalangan rohaniwan Protestan. Bukan berarti saya tidak sadar akan seks atau kedagingan saya karena saya bukan kayu ataupun batu ; tetapi pikiran saya jelas tidak menyukai ikatan perkawinan karena saya setiap hari mengharapkan kematian seorang penganut bidah.

Luther dan istrinya pindah ke suatu kediaman bekas biara, " Biara Hitam ", hadiah pernikahan dari Johann, Elektor Sachsen yang baru — Mereka mengawali apa yang tampaknya menjadi suatu pernikahan yang bahagia dan sukses, kendati sering kali kekurangan uang. Pada , Luther mendapati dirinya semakin sibuk dalam mengorganisasi suatu gereja yang baru. Model jemaat-jemaat yang dibayangkannya berdasarkan Alkitab dengan cara memilih pastor atau pendeta mereka masing-masing telah terbukti tidak dapat dijalankan. Jika ia terpaksa memilih, ia akan berdiri tegak dengan orang banyak, dan ke arah inilah ia melangkah.

Dari tahun sampai , ia mendirikan suatu badan pengawas gereja, meletakkan satu bentuk baru dari pelayanan ibadah , dan menulis suatu ringkasan jelas keimanan barunya dalam bentuk dua katekismus. Pemikiran Luther dipandang revolusioner karena merupakan suatu teologi salib, negasi dari setiap afirmasi: selama salib berada di tengah, kenderungan pembangunan sistem daya pikir berada dalam pengawasan, dan pembangunan sistem tidak mengalami degenerasi menjadi Sistem.

Untuk mencegah kebingungan dan kekecewaan orang-orang, Luther menghindari perubahan yang ekstrem. Ia juga tidak menghendaki penggantian satu sistem pengawasan dengan yang lain. Luther berkonsentrasi pada gereja di Elektorat Sachsen , hanya bertindak sebagai penasihat pada gereja-gereja di wilayah-wilayah baru, yang banyak di antaranya mengikuti model gerejanya di Sachsen. Ia bekerja sama dengan elektor barunya, Johann , kepada siapa ia berpaling demi kepemimpinan sekuler dan sokongan finansial atas nama suatu gereja yang pada dasarnya terputus aset dan pemasukannya setelah perpecahan dengan Roma. Sang elektor mengesahkan visitasi gereja, suatu kuasa yang sebelumnya dilaksanakan oleh para uskup.

Sebagai contoh, Instruksi-Instruksi untuk Para Visitor Pastor-Pastor Paroki di Elektorat Sachsen , yang dirancang oleh Melanchthon dengan persetujuan Luther, menekankan peranan pertobatan dalam pengampunan dosa, terlepas dari posisi Luther bahwa iman semata memastikan pembenaran. Sebagai tanggapan atas adanya kebutuhan akan liturgi berbahasa Jerman, Luther menulis Deutsche Messe Misa Jerman , yang ia publikasikan pada awal tahun Beberapa reformis, termasuk para pengikut Ulrich Zwingli , menganggap peribadahan Luther terlalu bersifat papistik , dan para akademisi modern melihat adanya konservatisme dalam alternatif misa Katolik susunannya.

Luther dan rekan-rekannya memperkenalkan tata ibadah baru tersebut selama visitasi kunjungan mereka di Elektorat Sachsen , yang bermula pada tahun Luther merancang katekismus sebagai suatu metode untuk menyampaikan dasar-dasar Kekristenan kepada jemaat-jemaat. Pada , ia menulis Katekismus Besar , satu manual bagi para pastor pendeta dan pengajar, serta Katekismus Kecil sebagai satu sinopsis untuk diingat oleh mereka. Katekismusnya merupakan salah satu karya Luther yang paling personal.

Sebab saya tidak mengakui satupun dari semuanya itu sebagai buku saya yang sesungguhnya, kecuali mungkin Keterbelengguan Kehendak dan Katekismus. Katekismus Kecil Luther dikatakan sangat efektif dalam membantu orang tua mengajar anak-anak mereka; seperti halnya Katekismus Besar efektif bagi para pendeta.. Tujuan Luther adalah untuk memungkinkan para katekumen melihat diri mereka sendiri sebagai suatu objek personal dari karya tiga pribadi Tritunggal Trinitas , yang masing-masingnya berkarya dalam kehidupan setiap katekumen.

Dalam apa yang dilakukannya tersebut, Luther memerikan Tritunggal bukan sebagai suatu doktrin untuk dipelajari, namun sebagai pribadi-pribadi untuk dikenal. Bapa mencipta, Putra menebus, dan Roh menguduskan, satu kesatuan ilahi dengan pribadi-pribadi yang khas. Keselamatan berasal dari Bapa dan menarik orang untuk percaya kepada Bapa. Luther telah memublikasikan terjemahan Perjanjian Baru berbahasa Jerman karyanya pada tahun , sementara ia dan para kolaboratornya menyelesaikan terjemahan Perjanjian Lama berbahasa Jerman pada tahun , ketika keseluruhan Alkitab karyanya dipublikasikan.

Ia senantiasa berupaya untuk memperbaiki terjemahan tersebut sampai akhir hayatnya. Paulus begitu memerlukan dan menuntutnya. Sebab dalam bagian itu secara khusus ia menyinggung pokok utama doktrin Kristen, yaitu, bahwa kita dibenarkan karena iman dalam Kristus tanpa perbuatan apa saja dari Hukum [Taurat]. Namun ketika perbuatan-perbuatan ditiadakan sama sekali — dan itu berarti bahwa iman saja membenarkan — siapa pun yang akan berbicara secara langsung dan jelas tentang peniadaan perbuatan-perbuatan ini akan harus mengatakan, 'Iman saja membenarkan kita, dan bukan perbuatan'. Hasil penerjemahan Luther menggunakan varian bahasa Jerman yang dituturkan di tempat kedudukan kanselir Sachsen, yang dapat dimengerti oleh orang-orang Jerman utara maupun selatan.

Diterbitkan pada saat meningkatnya permintaan akan publikasi-publikasi berbahasa Jerman, versi Luther dengan cepat menjadi suatu terjemahan Alkitab yang populer dan berpengaruh. Dengan demikian, karya tersebut memberi suatu kontribusi yang signifikan pada evolusi dari bahasa dan sastra Jerman. Luther adalah seorang himnodis yang produktif, yang menulis himne-himne seperti "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" " Allahmu Benteng Yang Teguh " , berdasarkan Mazmur 46 , dan " Vom Himmel hoch, da komm ich her " "Jauh dari Sorga datangKu" , berdasarkan Lukas — Sarana pilihannya untuk pertalian ini adalah nyanyian himne-himne Jerman dalam kaitannya dengan ibadah, sekolah, rumah, dan bidang publik.

Himne-himne Luther kerap distimulasi oleh peristiwa-peristiwa tertentu dalam hidupnya dan Reformasi Protestan yang tengah berlangsung. Hal itu bermula sejak ia mendengar eksekusi Johann Esch dan Heinrich Voes , orang-orang pertama yang dieksekusi oleh Dewan Brabant karena menganut pandangan Lutheran, menggerakkan Luther untuk menulis himne "Ein neues Lied wir heben an", yang umumnya dikenal dalam bahasa Inggris melalui terjemahan John C. Messenger dengan judul dan baris pertamanya yang berbunyi "Flung to the Heedless Winds" serta dinyanyikan untuk lagu populer Ibstone yang digubah pada oleh Maria C.

Himne Luther tahun , " Wir glauben all an einen Gott " "Kita Semua Percaya pada Satu Allah Benar" , merupakan suatu pengakuan iman dalam tiga-stanza yang adalah versi awal penjelasan Kredo Para Rasul dalam tiga-bagian oleh Luther pada di dalam Katekismus Kecil. Himne Luther, yang diadaptasi dan diperluas dari suatu himne Jerman terdahulu yang bertemakan pengakuan iman, mulai digunakan secara luas dalam liturgi-liturgi vernakular Lutheran pada awal tahun Himnal-himnal buku kumpulan himne Lutheran abad ke juga mencakup "Wir glauben all" di antara himne-himne kateketik, kendati himnal-himnal abad ke lebih cenderung melabelkan himne tersebut Trinitarian daripadan kateketik, dan kalangan Lutheran abad ke jarang menggunakan himne tersebut karena melodinya dianggap sulit.

Himne Luther tahun yang bertema Doa Bapa Kami , " Vater unser im Himmelreich ", bersesuaian secara tepat dengan penjelasan Luther tentang doa ini dalam Katekismus Kecil , dengan satu stanza untuk masing-masing dari ketujuh permohonan doa, ditambah stanza-stanza pembuka dan penutup. Himne tersebut berfungsi sebagai suatu komposisi liturgis Doa Bapa Kami dan sebagai suatu sarana untuk mengkaji kemungkinan-kemungkinan seputar pertanyaan-pertanyaan katekismus tertentu. Manuskrip yang masih terlestarikan menunjukkan adanya beberapa revisi, memperlihatkan perhatian Luther untuk mengklarifikasi serta memperkuat teks tersebut dan untuk menyediakan suatu lagu populer yang sesuai untuk berdoa.

Gubahan-gubahan lain Doa Bapa Kami dari abad ke dan ke telah mengadopsi lagu Luther tersebut, kendati teks-teks modern jauh lebih pendek. Luther menulis " Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir " "Dari jurang yang dalam aku berseru kepada-Mu" pada tahun sebagai versi himne dari Mazmur dan mengirimkannya sebagai satu contoh guna mendorong rekan-rekannya untuk menulis himne-mazmur demi penggunaan dalam ibadah Jerman. Dalam suatu kolaborasi dengan Paul Speratus , himne tersebut dan tujuh himne lainnya diterbitkan dalam Achtliederbuch , himnal Lutheran pertama. Pada , Luther mengembangkan mazmur aslinya yang terdiri dari empat stanza, yang diparafrasakan ke dalam suatu himne Reformasi Protestan yang terdiri dari lima stanza dengan pengembangan tema "kasih karunia saja" secara lebih lengkap.

Karena mengekspresikan doktrin penting Reformasi Protestan, versi "Aus tiefer Not" yang diperluas ini ditetapkan sebagai satu komponen reguler dari beberapa liturgi Lutheran regional dan banyak digunakan saat pemakaman, termasuk pemakaman Luther sendiri. Bersama dengan versi himne Erhart Hegenwalt dari Mazmur 51 , himne Luther yang diperluas juga diadopsi untuk penggunaan dengan bagian kelima katekismus Luther, mengenai pengakuan dosa.

Ambrosius , menjadi himne utama Hauptlied untuk Adven. Ia menulis dua himne tentang Sepuluh Perintah Allah , " Dies sind die heilgen zehn Gebot " dan "Mensch, willst du leben seliglich". Ia menulis " Nun bitten wir den Heiligen Geist " untuk Pentakosta , dan mengadopsi " Christ ist erstanden " Kristus bangkit untuk Paskah, berdasarkan Victimae paschali laudes. Ia memparafrasakan Te Deum sebagai " Herr Gott, dich loben wir " dengan suatu bentuk melodi yang disederhanakan dan menjadi dikenal sebagai Te Deum Jerman.

Himne Luther tahun , " Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam ", merefleksikan struktur dan substansi dari kumpulan pertanyaan dan jawaban Luther mengenai baptisan di dalam Katekismus Kecil. Luther mengadopsi satu lagu populer karya Johann Walter yang telah ada sebelumnya yang dikaitkan dengan suatu komposisi himne dari Mazmur 67 ; komposisi himne tersebut oleh Wolf Heintz yang terdiri dari empat bagian digunakan untuk mengenalkan Reformasi Lutheran di Halle pada Para pengkhotbah dan komponis abad ke, termasuk J.

Bach , menggunakan himne ini sebagai satu subjek untuk karya mereka sendiri, walaupun secara objektif teologi baptisan yang terkandung di dalamnya digantikan dengan himne-himne yang lebih subjektif di bawah pengaruh pietisme Lutheran abad ke akhir. Himne-himne Luther dimasukkan dalam himnal-himnal Lutheran awal dan menyebarkan gagasan-gagasan Reformasi Protestan. Ia menyuplai 4 dari 8 lagu himne Lutheran pertama Achtliederbuch , 18 dari 26 lagu Erfurt Enchiridion , dan 24 dari 32 lagu dalam himnal pertama untuk paduan suara dengan komposisi-komposisi oleh Johann Walter, Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn , semuanya terbit tahun Himne-himne Luther mengilhami para komponis untuk menulis musik.

Berbeda dengan pandangan-pandangan dari Yohanes Calvin [] dan Philipp Melanchthon , [] sepanjang hidupnya Luther menyatakan bahwa adalah bukan doktrin keliru untuk meyakini kalau jiwa seorang Kristen tertidur setelah terpisahkan dari tubuhnya dalam kematian badani. Dalam Pasal-Pasal Smalkald karyanya, ia mendeskripsikan kalau orang-orang kudus yang telah meninggal dunia saat ini tinggal "dalam kuburan-kuburan mereka dan dalam surga. Seorang teolog Lutheran bernama Franz Pieper mengamati bahwa ajaran Luther tentang keadaan dari jiwa orang Kristen setelah kematian badani berbeda dengan teolog-teolog Lutheran setelahnya seperti Johann Gerhard. Tafsir Kitab Kejadian yang ditulis Luther berisi satu bagian yang menyimpulkan bahwa "jiwa tidak tertidur anima non sic dormit , tetapi terjaga sed vigilat dan mengalami penglihatan-penglihatan".

Pada bulan Oktober , Philipp I, Landgraf Hessen , mengadakan suatu pertemuan majelis teolog-teolog Jerman dan Swiss pada Musyawarah Marburg , untuk membentuk kesatuan doktrin dalam negara-negara Protestan yang baru timbul. Para teolog, termasuk Ulrich Zwingli , Philipp Melanchthon , Martin Bucer , dan Yohanes Oecolampadius , berbeda pendapat dalam hal signifikansi kata-kata yang diucapkan oleh Yesus dalam Perjamuan Malam Terakhir : "Inilah tubuh-Ku, yang diserahkan bagi kamu" dan "Cawan ini adalah perjanjian baru yang dimeteraikan oleh darah-Ku" 1 Korintus — Zwingli, sebagai contoh, menyangkal kemampuan Yesus untuk berada di lebih dari satu tempat pada satu waktu bersamaan.

Sedangkan Luther menekankan omnipresensi kehadiran di mana-mana pada saat bersamaan kodrat manusia Yesus. Mengutip perkataan Yesus bahwa "daging sama sekali tidak berguna" Yohanes , Zwingli berkata, "Bagian ini mematahkan lehermu". Ini Hessen, bukan Swiss. Meskipun terdapat ketidaksepakatan dalam hal Perjamuan Kudus, Musyawarah Marburg membuka jalan bagi penandatanganan Pengakuan Iman Augsburg , dan bagi pembentukan Liga Schmalkaldis pada tahun berikutnya oleh para bangsawan Protestan terkemuka seperti Johann dari Sachsen , Philipp dari Hessen, dan Georg, Markgraf Brandenburg-Ansbach. Bagaimanapun, kota-kota Swiss tidak menandatangani kesepakatan-kesepakatan tersebut. Beberapa akademisi menyatakan kalau Luther mengajarkan bahwa iman dan akal daya pikir, nalar bersifat antitesis dalam pengertian bahwa pertanyaan-pertanyaan seputar iman tidak dapat diklarifikasi oleh akal.

Ia menulis, "Semua pasal dari iman Kristen kita, yang telah Allah wahyukan kepada kita di dalam Firman-Nya, adalah benar-benar mustahil, absurd, dan keliru di hadapan akal. Bagaimanapun, keilmuan Lutheran kontemporer menemukan suatu realitas yang berbeda dalam pandangan Luther. This day has become known as Bloody Sunday and was a major turning point in the effort to gain public support for the civil rights movement. It was the clearest demonstration up to that time of the dramatic potential of King and Bevel's nonviolence strategy. On March 5, King met with officials in the Johnson Administration in order to request an injunction against any prosecution of the demonstrators. He did not attend the march due to church duties, but he later wrote, "If I had any idea that the state troopers would use the kind of brutality they did, I would have felt compelled to give up my church duties altogether to lead the line.

King next attempted to organize a march for March 9. The SCLC petitioned for an injunction in federal court against the State of Alabama; this was denied and the judge issued an order blocking the march until after a hearing. Nonetheless, King led marchers on March 9 to the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, then held a short prayer session before turning the marchers around and asking them to disperse so as not to violate the court order. The unexpected ending of this second march aroused the surprise and anger of many within the local movement.

In , after several successes in the south, King, Bevel, and others in the civil rights organizations took the movement to the North, with Chicago as their first destination. King and Ralph Abernathy, both from the middle class, moved into a building at S. Hamlin Avenue, in the slums of North Lawndale [] on Chicago's West Side, as an educational experience and to demonstrate their support and empathy for the poor. King later stated and Abernathy wrote that the movement received a worse reception in Chicago than in the South. Marches, especially the one through Marquette Park on August 5, , were met by thrown bottles and screaming throngs.

Rioting seemed very possible. Daley to cancel a march in order to avoid the violence that he feared would result. When King and his allies returned to the South, they left Jesse Jackson , a seminary student who had previously joined the movement in the South, in charge of their organization. A CIA document declassified in downplayed King's role in the "black militant situation" in Chicago, with a source stating that King "sought at least constructive, positive projects. The black revolution is much more than a struggle for the rights of Negroes. It is forcing America to face all its interrelated flaws—racism, poverty, militarism, and materialism. It is exposing evils that are rooted deeply in the whole structure of our society.

It reveals systemic rather than superficial flaws and suggests that radical reconstruction of society itself is the real issue to be faced. America is a hypocritical nation and [we] must put [our] own house in order. King was long opposed to American involvement in the Vietnam War , [] but at first avoided the topic in public speeches in order to avoid the interference with civil rights goals that criticism of President Johnson's policies might have created. A true revolution of values will soon look uneasily on the glaring contrast of poverty and wealth. With righteous indignation, it will look across the seas and see individual capitalists of the West investing huge sums of money in Asia, Africa and South America, only to take the profits out with no concern for the social betterment of the countries, and say: "This is not just.

King opposed the Vietnam War because it took money and resources that could have been spent on social welfare at home. The United States Congress was spending more and more on the military and less and less on anti-poverty programs at the same time. He summed up this aspect by saying, "A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death.

King's opposition cost him significant support among white allies, including President Johnson, Billy Graham , union leaders and powerful publishers. The "Beyond Vietnam" speech reflected King's evolving political advocacy in his later years, which paralleled the teachings of the progressive Highlander Research and Education Center , with which he was affiliated. In a letter to Coretta Scott, he said: "I imagine you already know that I am much more socialistic in my economic theory than capitalistic King stated in "Beyond Vietnam" that "true compassion is more than flinging a coin to a beggar King's stance on Vietnam encouraged Allard K.

Lowenstein , William Sloane Coffin and Norman Thomas , with the support of anti-war Democrats, to attempt to persuade King to run against President Johnson in the United States presidential election. King contemplated but ultimately decided against the proposal on the grounds that he felt uneasy with politics and considered himself better suited for his morally unambiguous role as an activist.

At the U. King brought up issues of civil rights and the draft:. I have not urged a mechanical fusion of the civil rights and peace movements. There are people who have come to see the moral imperative of equality, but who cannot yet see the moral imperative of world brotherhood. I would like to see the fervor of the civil-rights movement imbued into the peace movement to instill it with greater strength. And I believe everyone has a duty to be in both the civil-rights and peace movements. But for those who presently choose but one, I would hope they will finally come to see the moral roots common to both.

Seeing an opportunity to unite civil rights activists and anti-war activists, [] Bevel convinced King to become even more active in the anti-war effort. The importance of the hippies is not in their unconventional behavior, but in the fact that hundreds of thousands of young people, in turning to a flight from reality, are expressing a profoundly discrediting view on the society they emerge from. On January 13, the day after President Johnson's State of the Union Address , King called for a large march on Washington against "one of history's most cruel and senseless wars. We need to make clear in this political year, to congressmen on both sides of the aisle and to the president of the United States, that we will no longer tolerate, we will no longer vote for men who continue to see the killings of Vietnamese and Americans as the best way of advancing the goals of freedom and self-determination in Southeast Asia.

He had written a letter to Martin Luther King Jr. In his nomination, King said, "I do not personally know of anyone more worthy of [this prize] than this gentle monk from Vietnam. His ideas for peace, if applied, would build a monument to ecumenism , to world brotherhood, to humanity". King traveled the country to assemble "a multiracial army of the poor" that would march on Washington to engage in nonviolent civil disobedience at the Capitol until Congress created an "economic bill of rights" for poor Americans.

King quoted from Henry George and George's book, Progress and Poverty , particularly in support of a guaranteed basic income. He felt that Congress had shown "hostility to the poor" by spending "military funds with alacrity and generosity. The Poor People's Campaign was controversial even within the civil rights movement. Rustin resigned from the march, stating that the goals of the campaign were too broad, that its demands were unrealizable, and that he thought that these campaigns would accelerate the backlash and repression on the poor and the black. The workers had been on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment. In one incident, black street repairmen received pay for two hours when they were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees were paid for the full day.

King's flight to Memphis had been delayed by a bomb threat against his plane. And then I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers? Well, I don't know what will happen now. We've got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn't matter with me now. Because I've been to the mountaintop. And I don't mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over. And I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land.

So I'm happy, tonight. I'm not worried about anything. I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. Ralph Abernathy , who was present at the assassination, testified to the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations that King and his entourage stayed at Room so often that it was known as the "King-Abernathy suite. Play it real pretty. King was fatally shot by James Earl Ray at p. The bullet entered through his right cheek, smashing his jaw, then traveled down his spinal cord before lodging in his shoulder. After emergency chest surgery, King died at St.

Joseph's Hospital at p. National Historical Park. The assassination led to a nationwide wave of race riots in Washington, D. Kennedy was on his way to Indianapolis for a campaign rally when he was informed of King's death. He gave a short, improvised speech to the gathering of supporters informing them of the tragedy and urging them to continue King's ideal of nonviolence. The plan to set up a shantytown in Washington, D. Criticism of King's plan was subdued in the wake of his death, and the SCLC received an unprecedented wave of donations for the purpose of carrying it out.

The campaign officially began in Memphis, on May 2, at the hotel where King was murdered. President Lyndon B. Johnson tried to quell the riots by making several telephone calls to civil rights leaders, mayors and governors across the United States and told politicians that they should warn the police against the unwarranted use of force. In that sermon, King made a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made, but that it be said that he tried to "feed the hungry", "clothe the naked", "be right on the [Vietnam] war question", and "love and serve humanity.

Two months after King's death, James Earl Ray —who was on the loose from a previous prison escape—was captured at London Heathrow Airport while trying to leave England on a false Canadian passport. He was using the alias Ramon George Sneyd on his way to white-ruled Rhodesia. He confessed to the assassination on March 10, , though he recanted this confession three days later. He was sentenced to a year prison term. Ray's lawyers maintained he was a scapegoat similar to the way that John F. Kennedy's assassin Lee Harvey Oswald is seen by conspiracy theorists. Jerry Ray said that he had assisted his brother on one such robbery. Those suspecting a conspiracy in the assassination point to the two successive ballistics tests which proved that a rifle similar to Ray's Remington Gamemaster had been the murder weapon.

Those tests did not implicate Ray's specific rifle. They said that it came from behind thick shrubbery near the boarding house—which had been cut away in the days following the assassination—and not from the boarding house window. Two years later, King's widow Coretta Scott King and the couple's children won a wrongful death claim against Loyd Jowers and "other unknown co-conspirators. The jury of six whites and six blacks found in favor of the King family, finding Jowers to be complicit in a conspiracy against King and that government agencies were party to the assassination.

Pepper represented the King family in the trial. In , the U. Department of Justice completed the investigation into Jowers' claims but did not find evidence to support allegations about conspiracy. The investigation report recommended no further investigation unless some new reliable facts are presented. He stated, "It wasn't a racist thing; he thought Martin Luther King was connected with communism, and he wanted to get him out of the way.

Pepper's claims that the government killed King. The fact is there were saboteurs to disrupt the march. And within our own organization, we found a very key person who was on the government payroll. So infiltration within, saboteurs from without and the press attacks. I will never believe that James Earl Ray had the motive, the money and the mobility to have done it himself. Our government was very involved in setting the stage for and I think the escape route for James Earl Ray. King's legacy includes influences on the Black Consciousness Movement and civil rights movement in South Africa. King influenced Irish politician and activist John Hume.

Hume, the former leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party , cited King's legacy as quintessential to the Northern Irish civil rights movement and the signing of the Good Friday Agreement , calling him "one of my great heroes of the century. Inspired by King's vision, it undertakes a range of activities across the UK as it seeks to "build cultures of peace. In , Newcastle University unveiled a bronze statue of King to celebrate the 50th anniversary of his honorary doctorate ceremony.

King has become a national icon in the history of American liberalism and American progressivism. This legislation was seen as a tribute to King's struggle in his final years to combat residential discrimination in the U. Her purpose was to help them understand King's death as it related to racism, something they little understood as they lived in a predominantly white community.

King's wife Coretta Scott King followed in her husband's footsteps and was active in matters of social justice and civil rights until her death in The same year that Martin Luther King was assassinated, she established the King Center in Atlanta, Georgia, dedicated to preserving his legacy and the work of championing nonviolent conflict resolution and tolerance worldwide. Even within the King family, members disagree about his religious and political views about gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people. King's widow Coretta publicly said that she believed her husband would have supported gay rights. On February 4, , at the Ebenezer Baptist Church, in speaking about how he wished to be remembered after his death, King stated:.

I'd like somebody to mention that day that Martin Luther King Jr. I'd like for somebody to say that day that Martin Luther King Jr. I want you to say that day that I tried to be right on the war question. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try to feed the hungry. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try in my life to clothe those who were naked. I want you to say on that day that I did try in my life to visit those who were in prison.

And I want you to say that I tried to love and serve humanity. Yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major. Say that I was a drum major for justice. Say that I was a drum major for peace. I was a drum major for righteousness. And all of the other shallow things will not matter. I won't have any money to leave behind. I won't have the fine and luxurious things of life to leave behind. But I just want to leave a committed life behind. Beginning in , cities such as St. Louis, Missouri , and states established annual holidays to honor King. Following President George H. Bush 's proclamation, the holiday is observed on the third Monday of January each year, near the time of King's birthday.

Day was officially observed in all fifty U. Utah previously celebrated the holiday at the same time but under the name Human Rights Day. As a Christian minister, King's main influence was Jesus Christ and the Christian gospels, which he would almost always quote in his religious meetings, speeches at church, and in public discourses. King's faith was strongly based in Jesus' commandment of loving your neighbor as yourself , loving God above all, and loving your enemies, praying for them and blessing them.

His nonviolent thought was also based in the injunction to turn the other cheek in the Sermon on the Mount , and Jesus' teaching of putting the sword back into its place Matthew In another sermon, he stated:. Before I was a civil rights leader, I was a preacher of the Gospel. This was my first calling and it still remains my greatest commitment. You know, actually all that I do in civil rights I do because I consider it a part of my ministry.

I have no other ambitions in life but to achieve excellence in the Christian ministry. I don't plan to run for any political office. I don't plan to do anything but remain a preacher. And what I'm doing in this struggle, along with many others, grows out of my feeling that the preacher must be concerned about the whole man. King's private writings show that he rejected biblical literalism ; he described the Bible as "mythological," doubted that Jesus was born of a virgin and did not believe that the story of Jonah and the whale was true. The sermons argued for man's need for God's love and criticized the racial injustices of Western civilization. World peace through nonviolent means is neither absurd nor unattainable.

All other methods have failed. Thus we must begin anew. Nonviolence is a good starting point. Those of us who believe in this method can be voices of reason, sanity, and understanding amid the voices of violence, hatred, and emotion. We can very well set a mood of peace out of which a system of peace can be built. Veteran African-American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin was King's first regular advisor on nonviolence. Rustin had applied nonviolence with the Journey of Reconciliation campaign in the s, [] and Wofford had been promoting Gandhism to Southern blacks since the early s. King had initially known little about Gandhi and rarely used the term "nonviolence" during his early years of activism in the early s.

King initially believed in and practiced self-defense, even obtaining guns in his household as a means of defense against possible attackers. The pacifists guided King by showing him the alternative of nonviolent resistance , arguing that this would be a better means to accomplish his goals of civil rights than self-defense. King then vowed to no longer personally use arms. In the aftermath of the boycott, King wrote Stride Toward Freedom , which included the chapter Pilgrimage to Nonviolence. King outlined his understanding of nonviolence, which seeks to win an opponent to friendship, rather than to humiliate or defeat him. The chapter draws from an address by Wofford, with Rustin and Stanley Levison also providing guidance and ghostwriting. King was inspired by Gandhi and his success with nonviolent activism, and as a theology student, King described Gandhi as being one of the "individuals who greatly reveal the working of the Spirit of God".

In a radio address made during his final evening in India, King reflected, "Since being in India, I am more convinced than ever before that the method of nonviolent resistance is the most potent weapon available to oppressed people in their struggle for justice and human dignity. King's admiration of Gandhi's nonviolence did not diminish in later years. He went so far as to hold up his example when receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in , hailing the "successful precedent" of using nonviolence "in a magnificent way by Mohandas K. Gandhi to challenge the might of the British Empire He struggled only with the weapons of truth, soul force, non-injury and courage.

Another influence for King's nonviolent method was Henry David Thoreau 's essay On Civil Disobedience and its theme of refusing to cooperate with an evil system. Even after renouncing his personal use of guns, King had a complex relationship with the phenomenon of self-defense in the movement. He publicly discouraged it as a widespread practice, but acknowledged that it was sometimes necessary. King was criticized by other black leaders during the course of his participation in the civil rights movement.

This included opposition by more militant thinkers such as Nation of Islam member Malcolm X. King was an avid supporter of Native American rights. Native Americans were also active supporters of King's civil rights movement which included the active participation of Native Americans. Our nation was born in genocide when it embraced the doctrine that the original American, the Indian, was an inferior race.

Even before there were large numbers of Negroes on our shores, the scar of racial hatred had already disfigured colonial society. From the sixteenth century forward, blood flowed in battles over racial supremacy. We are perhaps the only nation which tried as a matter of national policy to wipe out its indigenous population. Moreover, we elevated that tragic experience into a noble crusade. Indeed, even today we have not permitted ourselves to reject or to feel remorse for this shameful episode. Our literature, our films, our drama, our folklore all exalt it. King assisted Native American people in south Alabama in the late s. The South had many egregious racial problems: In this case, light-complexioned Native children were allowed to ride school buses to previously all white schools, while dark-skinned Native children from the same band were barred from riding the same buses.

He promptly responded and through his intervention the problem was quickly resolved. He put into words his belief that one must not use force in this struggle "but match the violence of his opponents with his suffering. During the March on Washington there was a sizable Native American contingent, including many from South Dakota, and many from the Navajo nation. King was a major inspiration along with the civil rights movement which inspired the Native American rights movement of the s and many of its leaders.

Inspired by Dr. King, who was advancing the civil rights agenda of equality under the laws of this country, we thought that we could also use the laws to advance our Indianship, to live as tribes in our territories governed by our own laws under the principles of tribal sovereignty that had been with us ever since We believed that we could fight for a policy of self-determination that was consistent with U. They both have weaknesses And I'm not inextricably bound to either party.

Actually, the Negro has been betrayed by both the Republican and the Democratic party. The Democrats have betrayed him by capitulating to the whims and caprices of the Southern Dixiecrats. The Republicans have betrayed him by capitulating to the blatant hypocrisy of reactionary right-wing northern Republicans. And this coalition of southern Dixiecrats and right-wing reactionary northern Republicans defeats every bill and every move towards liberal legislation in the area of civil rights. Although King never publicly supported a political party or candidate for president, in a letter to a civil rights supporter in October he said that he had not decided whether he would vote for Adlai Stevenson II or Dwight D.

Eisenhower at the presidential election , but that "In the past, I always voted the Democratic ticket. Kennedy : "I felt that Kennedy would make the best president. I never came out with an endorsement. My father did, but I never made one. In , King urged his supporters "and all people of goodwill" to vote against Republican Senator Barry Goldwater for president, saying that his election "would be a tragedy, and certainly suicidal almost, for the nation and the world. King supported the ideals of social democracy and democratic socialism , although he was reluctant to speak directly of this support due to the anti-communist sentiment being projected throughout the United States at the time, and the association of socialism with communism.

King believed that capitalism could not adequately provide the necessities of many American people, particularly the African-American community. King stated that black Americans, as well as other disadvantaged Americans, should be compensated for historical wrongs. In an interview conducted for Playboy in , he said that granting black Americans only equality could not realistically close the economic gap between them and whites. He posited that "the money spent would be more than amply justified by the benefits that would accrue to the nation through a spectacular decline in school dropouts, family breakups, crime rates, illegitimacy, swollen relief rolls, rioting and other social evils.

He stated, "It should benefit the disadvantaged of all races. Actress Nichelle Nichols planned to leave the science-fiction television series Star Trek in after its first season , wanting to return to musical theater. King explained that her character signified a future of greater racial harmony and cooperation. Keep doing what you're doing, you are our inspiration.

And I thanked him and I told him I was leaving the show. All the smile came off his face. And he said, 'Don't you understand for the first time we're seen as we should be seen. You don't have a black role. You have an equal role. FBI director J. Edgar Hoover personally ordered surveillance of King, with the intent to undermine his power as a civil rights leader. Kennedy to proceed with wiretapping of King's phone lines, purportedly due to his association with Stanley Levison. The Bureau placed wiretaps on the home and office phone lines of both Levison and King, and bugged King's rooms in hotels as he traveled across the country. In a secret operation code-named " Minaret ", the National Security Agency monitored the communications of leading Americans, including King, who were critical of the U.

For years, Hoover had been suspicious of potential influence of communists in social movements such as labor unions and civil rights. Due to the relationship between King and Stanley Levison, the FBI feared Levison was working as an "agent of influence" over King, in spite of its own reports in that Levison had left the Party and was no longer associated in business dealings with them. Despite the extensive surveillance conducted, by the FBI had acknowledged that it had not obtained any evidence that King himself or the SCLC were actually involved with any communist organizations.

For his part, King adamantly denied having any connections to communism. In a Playboy interview, he stated that "there are as many Communists in this freedom movement as there are Eskimos in Florida. The attempts to prove that King was a communist was related to the feeling of many segregationists that blacks in the South were content with the status quo, but had been stirred up by "communists" and "outside agitators. King said that "the Negro revolution is a genuine revolution, born from the same womb that produces all massive social upheavals—the womb of intolerable conditions and unendurable situations.

CIA files declassified in revealed that the agency was investigating possible links between King and Communism after a Washington Post article dated November 4, , claimed he was invited to the Soviet Union and that Ralph Abernathy, as spokesman for King, refused to comment on the source of the invitation. The FBI having concluded that King was dangerous due to communist infiltration, attempts to discredit King began through revelations regarding his private life.

FBI surveillance of King, some of it since made public, attempted to demonstrate that he also had numerous extramarital affairs. Johnson once said that King was a "hypocritical preacher". In his autobiography And the Walls Came Tumbling Down , Ralph Abernathy stated that King had a "weakness for women", although they "all understood and believed in the biblical prohibition against sex outside of marriage.

It was just that he had a particularly difficult time with that temptation. Abernathy criticized the media for sensationalizing the statements he wrote about King's affairs, [] such as the allegation that he admitted in his book that King had a sexual affair the night before he was assassinated. In his book Bearing the Cross , David Garrow wrote about a number of extramarital affairs, including one woman King saw almost daily. According to Garrow, "that relationship The FBI distributed reports regarding such affairs to the executive branch, friendly reporters, potential coalition partners and funding sources of the SCLC, and King's family.

The American public, the church organizations that have been helping—Protestants, Catholics and Jews will know you for what you are—an evil beast. So will others who have backed you. You are done. King, there is only one thing left for you to do. You know what it is. You have just 34 days in which to do this exact number has been selected for a specific reason, it has definite practical significant [ sic ]. There is but one way out for you. You better take it before your filthy fraudulent self is bared to the nation.

The letter was accompanied by a tape recording—excerpted from FBI wiretaps—of several of King's extramarital liaisons. King to resign from the SCLC. In May , FBI files emerged alleging that King "looked on, laughed and offered advice" as one of his friends raped a woman. His biographer, David Garrow , wrote that "the suggestion King records at Stanford University states that he came to the opposite conclusion of Garrow saying "None of this is new. Garrow is talking about a recently added summary of a transcript of a recording from the Willard Hotel that others, including Mrs.

King, have said they did not hear Martin's voice on it. The added summary was four layers removed from the actual recording. This supposedly new information comes from an anonymous source in a single paragraph in an FBI report. You have to ask how could anyone conclude King looked at a rape from an audio recording in a room where he was not present. I have read scores of reports talking about the scurrilous activities of my husband but once again, there was nothing at all incriminating on the tape. It was a social event with people laughing and telling dirty jokes. But I did not hear Martin's voice on it, and there was nothing about sex or anything else resembling the lies J. Edgar and the FBI were spreading.

A fire station was located across from the Lorraine Motel, next to the boarding house in which James Earl Ray was staying. Police officers were stationed in the fire station to keep King under surveillance. Marrell McCollough, an undercover police officer, was the first person to administer first aid to King. King was awarded at least fifty honorary degrees from colleges and universities. You have it all or you are not free. There are three urgent and indeed great problems that we face not only in the United States of America but all over the world today. That is the problem of racism, the problem of poverty and the problem of war. The citation read:. He gazed upon the great wall of segregation and saw that the power of love could bring it down.

From the pain and exhaustion of his fight to fulfill the promises of our founding fathers for our humblest citizens, he wrung his eloquent statement of his dream for America. He made our nation stronger because he made it better. His dream sustains us yet. King and his wife were also awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in Among the planned designs are images from King's "I Have a Dream" speech and the concert by opera singer Marian Anderson. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Martin Luther King, Jr. American civil rights activist and leader — Not to be confused with Martin Luther.

The Reverend. Coretta Scott. Yolanda Martin Dexter Bernice. Martin Luther King Sr. Alberta Williams King. Baptist minister activist. This article is part of a series about. See also: Martin Luther King Jr. Main article: Albany Movement. Main article: Birmingham campaign. Play media. Main article: March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. I Have a Dream. Main article: I Have a Dream. Main article: St. Augustine movement. Main article: Selma to Montgomery marches. Main article: Chicago Freedom Movement. It reveals systemic rather than superficial flaws and suggests that radical reconstruction of society itself is the real issue to be faced —Martin Luther King Jr. Main article: Poor People's Campaign. I've Been to the Mountaintop.

Further information: King assassination riots. Main article: Martin Luther King Jr. See also: Black Consciousness Movement. See also: Northern Ireland civil rights movement. See also: Reparations for slavery debate in the United States. Biography portal Civil rights movement portal Georgia U. Oates and Schuman state that King passed the exam in the spring of before graduating from the eleventh grade and then being enrolled in Morehouse that fall. Manheimer states that King graduated from the eleventh grade, then applied and took the entrance exam before going to Connecticut, but did not find out he had passed until August when he was admitted. White states he took and passed the exam upon his return from Connecticut in Greenwood Publishing Group.

ISBN X. Board of Education. ISBN The King Center. The Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change. In a perfect world, you and your soulmate would bump into each other on the streets of Germany, lock eyes, and fall madly in love the next second. Dating Profile. Is online dating easier for single female expats in Germany than for their male counterparts? Dating Tips. Register Login Language: English en. Register to contact people from your country living in Germany just like you!

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