① Examples Of Greed In Dantes Inferno
Is it because the Holy Grail is a Western Christian concept? His campaign to the East went as far as India. Thus, it became possible to defeat her by Sarah And Janies Short Story Examples Of Greed In Dantes Inferno link to the Examples Of Greed In Dantes Inferno Cell before she could fire her Noble Lies And Deceit In The Crucible. Said instruments evolved in form so as to closely resemble those technologies employed in Examples Of Greed In Dantes Inferno inquiry. He sets out to climb directly up a small mountain, but his way is blocked by three beasts he cannot evade: a lonza Examples Of Greed In Dantes Inferno usually Examples Of Greed In Dantes Inferno as " leopard " or " leopon Examples Of Greed In Dantes Inferno Examples Of Greed In Dantes Inferno leone  lionand a lupa  Examples Of Greed In Dantes Inferno. Machiavelli Examples Of Greed In Dantes Inferno one of those figures difference between human resource management and personnel management writers who is tragically overrated and underrated at the Examples Of Greed In Dantes Inferno time. Archer Knight of the Bow. A slim, blank space Examples Of Greed In Dantes Inferno the now unoccupied desk.
Dante's Inferno Walkthrough - Chapter 5: Greed Part 2
As they refused life, they remain fixed in a dead and withered sterility. They are the image of the self-hatred which dries up the very sap of energy and makes all life infertile. Dante learns that these suicides, unique among the dead, will not be corporally resurrected after the Final Judgement since they threw their bodies away; instead, they will maintain their bushy form, with their own corpses hanging from the thorny limbs.
After Pietro della Vigna finishes his story, Dante notices two shades Lano da Siena and Jacopo Sant' Andrea race through the wood, chased and savagely mauled by ferocious bitches — this is the punishment of the violently profligate who, "possessed by a depraved passion Ring 3: Against God, Art, and Nature : The third round of the seventh circle is a great Plain of Burning Sand scorched by great flakes of flame falling slowly down from the sky, an image derived from the fate of Sodom and Gomorrah Gen.
The Blasphemers the Violent against God are stretched supine upon the burning sand, the Sodomites the Violent against Nature run in circles, while the Usurers the Violent against Art, which is the Grandchild of God, as explained in Canto XI crouch huddled and weeping. Ciardi writes, "Blasphemy, sodomy, and usury are all unnatural and sterile actions: thus the unbearing desert is the eternity of these sinners; and thus the rain, which in nature should be fertile and cool, descends as fire".
The overflow of Phlegethon, the river of blood from the First Round, flows boiling through the Wood of the Suicides the second round and crosses the Burning Plain. Virgil explains the origin of the rivers of Hell, which includes references to the Old Man of Crete. Canto XV Protected by the powers of the boiling rivulet, Dante and Virgil progress across the burning plain.
They pass a roving group of Sodomites, and Dante, to his surprise, recognizes Brunetto Latini. Dante addresses Brunetto with deep and sorrowful affection, "paying him the highest tribute offered to any sinner in the Inferno ",  thus refuting suggestions that Dante only placed his enemies in Hell. Rusticucci blames his "savage wife" for his torments. The sinners ask for news of Florence, and Dante laments the current state of the city. At the top of the falls, at Virgil's order, Dante removes a cord from about his waist and Virgil drops it over the edge; as if in answer, a large, distorted shape swims up through the filthy air of the abyss.
Dante goes alone to examine the Usurers: he does not recognize them, but each has a heraldic device emblazoned on a leather purse around his neck "On these their streaming eyes appeared to feast" . The coats of arms indicate that they came from prominent Florentine families; they indicate the presence of Catello di Rosso Gianfigliazzi , Ciappo Ubriachi , the Paduan Reginaldo degli Scrovegni who predicts that his fellow Paduan Vitaliano di Iacopo Vitaliani will join him here , and Giovanni di Buiamonte. Dante then rejoins Virgil and, both mounted atop Geryon's back, the two begin their descent from the great cliff in the Eighth Circle: the Hell of the Fraudulent and Malicious. Geryon, the winged monster who allows Dante and Virgil to descend a vast cliff to reach the Eighth Circle, was traditionally represented as a giant with three heads and three conjoined bodies.
The Eighth Circle is a large funnel of stone shaped like an amphitheatre around which run a series of ten deep, narrow, concentric ditches or trenches called bolge singular: bolgia. Within these ditches are punished those guilty of Simple Fraud. From the foot of the Great Cliff to the Well which forms the neck of the funnel are large spurs of rock, like umbrella ribs or spokes, which serve as bridges over the ten ditches. Sayers writes that the Malebolge is "the image of the City in corruption: the progressive disintegration of every social relationship, personal and public. Sexuality, ecclesiastical and civil office, language, ownership, counsel, authority, psychic influence, and material interdependence — all the media of the community's interchange are perverted and falsified".
Bolgia 4 — Sorcerers : In the middle of the bridge of the Fourth Bolgia, Dante looks down at the souls of fortune tellers , diviners , astrologers , and other false prophets. The punishment of those who attempted to "usurp God's prerogative by prying into the future",  is to have their heads twisted around on their bodies; in this horrible contortion of the human form, these sinners are compelled to walk backwards for eternity, blinded by their own tears.
John Ciardi writes, "Thus, those who sought to penetrate the future cannot even see in front of themselves; they attempted to move themselves forward in time, so must they go backwards through all eternity; and as the arts of sorcery are a distortion of God's law, so are their bodies distorted in Hell. Among the sinners in this circle are King Amphiaraus one of the Seven against Thebes ; foreseeing his death in the war, he sought to avert it by hiding from battle but died in an earthquake trying to flee and two Theban soothsayers: Tiresias in Ovid's Metamorphoses III, —, Tiresias was transformed into a woman upon striking two coupling serpents with his rod; seven years later, he was changed back to a man in an identical encounter and his daughter Manto.
Virgil implies that the moon is now setting over the Pillars of Hercules in the West: the time is just after AM, the dawn of Holy Saturday. Canto XXII One of the grafters, an unidentified Navarrese identified by early commentators as Ciampolo is seized by the demons, and Virgil questions him. The sinner speaks of his fellow grafters, Friar Gomita a corrupt friar in Gallura eventually hanged by Nino Visconti see Purg. He offers to lure some of his fellow sufferers into the hands of the demons, and when his plan is accepted he escapes back into the pitch. Alichino and Calcabrina start a brawl in mid-air and fall into the pitch themselves, and Barbariccia organizes a rescue party. Dante and Virgil take advantage of the confusion to slip away.
The centaur Cacus arrives to punish him; he has a fire-breathing dragon on his shoulders and snakes covering his equine back. In Roman mythology, Cacus, the monstrous, fire-breathing son of Vulcan , was killed by Hercules for raiding the hero's cattle; in Aeneid VIII, —, Virgil did not describe him as a centaur. Dante then meets five noble thieves of Florence and observes their various transformations. Agnello Brunelleschi, in human form, is merged with the six-legged serpent that is Cianfa Donati. Puccio Sciancato remains unchanged for the time being. Consider well the seed that gave you birth: you were not made to live your lives as brutes, but to be followers of worth and knowledge.
Dante replies with a tragic summary of the current state of the cities of Romagna. Guido then recounts his life: he advised Pope Boniface VIII to offer a false amnesty to the Colonna family , who, in , had walled themselves inside the castle of Palestrina in the Lateran. When the Colonna accepted the terms and left the castle, the Pope razed it to the ground and left them without a refuge. Guido describes how St. Francis , founder of the Franciscan order, came to take his soul to Heaven, only to have a devil assert prior claim. Although Boniface had absolved Guido in advance for his evil advice, the devil points out the invalidity: absolution requires contrition , and a man cannot be contrite for a sin at the same time that he is intending to commit it . Schicchi sinks his teeth into the neck of an alchemist, Capocchio, and drags him away like prey.
Griffolino explains how Myrrha disguised herself to commit incest with her father King Cinyras , while Schicchi impersonated the dead Buoso Donati to dictate a will giving himself several profitable bequests. Dante then encounters Master Adam of Brescia, one of the Counterfeiters Falsifiers of Money : for manufacturing Florentine florins of twenty-one rather than twenty-four carat gold , he was burned at the stake in He is punished by a loathsome dropsy -like disease, which gives him a bloated stomach , prevents him from moving, and an eternal, unbearable thirst.
Master Adam points out two sinners of the fourth class, the Perjurers Falsifiers of Words. These are Potiphar's wife punished for her false accusation of Joseph , Gen. Both suffer from a burning fever. Master Adam and Sinon exchange abuse, which Dante watches until he is rebuked by Virgil. As a result of his shame and repentance, Dante is forgiven by his guide. Sayers remarks that the descent through Malebolge "began with the sale of the sexual relationship, and went on to the sale of Church and State; now, the very money is itself corrupted, every affirmation has become perjury, and every identity a lie"  so that every aspect of social interaction has been progressively destroyed.
The classical and biblical Giants — who perhaps symbolize pride and other spiritual flaws lying behind acts of treachery  — stand perpetual guard inside the well-pit, their legs embedded in the banks of the Ninth Circle while their upper halves rise above the rim and can be visible from the Malebolge. Also here is Antaeus , who did not join in the rebellion against the Olympian gods and therefore is not chained. At Virgil's persuasion, Antaeus takes the poets in his large palm and lowers them gently to the final level of Hell. Trapped in the ice, each according to his guilt, are punished sinners guilty of treachery against those with whom they had special relationships.
The lake of ice is divided into four concentric rings or "rounds" of traitors corresponding, in order of seriousness, to betrayal of family ties, betrayal of community ties, betrayal of guests, and betrayal of lords. This is in contrast to the popular image of Hell as fiery; as Ciardi writes, "The treacheries of these souls were denials of love which is God and of all human warmth.
Only the remorseless dead center of the ice will serve to express their natures. As they denied God's love, so are they furthest removed from the light and warmth of His Sun. As they denied all human ties, so are they bound only by the unyielding ice. In "the most pathetic and dramatic passage of the Inferno ",  Ugolino describes how he conspired with Ruggieri in to oust his nephew, Nino Visconti , and take control over the Guelphs of Pisa. However, as soon as Nino was gone, the Archbishop, sensing the Guelphs' weakened position, turned on Ugolino and imprisoned him with his sons and grandsons in the Torre dei Gualandi. In March , the Archbishop condemned the prisoners to death by starvation in the tower.
In the very centre of Hell, condemned for committing the ultimate sin personal treachery against God , is the Devil , referred to by Virgil as Dis the Roman god of the underworld; the name "Dis" was often used for Pluto in antiquity, such as in Virgil's Aeneid. The arch-traitor, Lucifer was once held by God to be fairest of the angels before his pride led him to rebel against God, resulting in his expulsion from Heaven.
Lucifer is a giant, terrifying beast trapped waist-deep in the ice, fixed and suffering. He has three faces, each a different color: one red the middle , one a pale yellow the right , and one black the left :. Sayers notes that Satan's three faces are thought by some to suggest his control over the three human races : red for the Europeans from Japheth , yellow for the Asiatic from Shem , and black for the African the race of Ham.
He weeps from his six eyes, and his tears mix with bloody froth and pus as they pour down his three chins. Each face has a mouth that chews eternally on a prominent traitor. Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus dangle with their feet in the left and right mouths, respectively, for their involvement in the assassination of Julius Caesar March 15, 44 BC — an act which, to Dante, represented the destruction of a unified Italy and the killing of the man who was divinely appointed to govern the world.
Judas is receiving the most horrifying torture of the three traitors: his head is gnawed inside Lucifer's mouth while his back is forever flayed and shredded by Lucifer's claws. Sayers, "just as Judas figures treason against God, so Brutus and Cassius figure treason against Man-in-Society; or we may say that we have here the images of treason against the Divine and the Secular government of the world".
At about p. When they reach Satan's genitalia, the poets pass through the center of the universe and of gravity from the Northern Hemisphere of land to the Southern Hemisphere of water. When Virgil changes direction and begins to climb "upward" towards the surface of the Earth at the antipodes , Dante, in his confusion, initially believes they are returning to Hell. Virgil indicates that the time is halfway between the canonical hours of Prime 6 a. Dante is confused as to how, after about an hour and a half of climbing, it is now apparently morning. Virgil explains that as a result of passing through the Earth's center into the Southern Hemisphere, which is twelve hours ahead of Jerusalem , the central city of the Northern Hemisphere where, therefore, it is currently p.
Virgil goes on to explain how the Southern Hemisphere was once covered with dry land, but the land recoiled in horror to the north when Lucifer fell from Heaven and was replaced by the ocean. Meanwhile, the inner rock Lucifer displaced as he plunged into the center of the earth rushed upwards to the surface of the Southern Hemisphere to avoid contact with him, forming the Mountain of Purgatory. This mountain — the only land mass in the waters of the Southern Hemisphere — rises above the surface at a point directly opposite Jerusalem.
The poets then ascend a narrow chasm of rock through the "space contained between the floor formed by the convex side of Cocytus and the underside of the earth above,"  moving in opposition to Lethe , the river of oblivion, which flows down from the summit of Mount Purgatory. The poets finally emerge a little before dawn on the morning of Easter Sunday April 10, beneath a sky studded with stars. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. First part of Dante's Divine Comedy.
For other uses, see Dante's Inferno disambiguation. Dante 's Divine Comedy. See also: Malebolge. See also: Dante's Satan. Series of woodcuts illustrating Dante's Hell, by Antonio Manetti — Dialogo di Antonio Manetti cittadino fiorentino circa al sito, forma, et misure dello inferno di Dante Alighieri poeta excellentissimo [Florence: F. Giunta, ? Some examples include All hope abandon, ye who enter here — Henry Francis Cary — All hope abandon, ye who enter in!
Sayers Abandon all hope, ye who enter here — John Ciardi Abandon every hope, you who enter. Singleton No room for hope, when you enter this place — C. Sisson Abandon every hope, who enter here. Durling Verbatim, the line translates as "Leave lasciate every ogne hope speranza , ye voi that ch' enter intrate. Its popularity assures that Dante would have had access to it. Jacques Le Goff , Goldhammer, Arthur , tr. Dante held that Christ died after having completed 34 years of life on this earth — years counted from the day of the Incarnation. Luke affirms that the hour of His death was the sixth — that is, noon.
If this is the case, then Malacoda is referring to a time which is 7 AM, five hours before noon on Holy Saturday. MacAllister, p. Sayers , Hell , notes, p. Note on Inferno I. In Robert and Jean Hollander, trans. New York: Random House. Electronic Bulletin of the Dante Society of America. Sayers, Hell , notes on Canto I. The Cambridge History of Italian Literature 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press. ISBN Sayers, Hell Penguin p. Sayers, Hell , notes on Canto XI, p. Sayers, Hell , notes on Canto V, p. The Dante Encyclopedia. Sayers , Hell , notes on Canto VI. Archived from the original on October 18, Retrieved The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri.
New York: Oxford University Press. McBrien Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to John Paul II. Retrieved 8 March Dante's Inferno. Translated by Mark Musa. Indiana University Press. JSTOR The Inferno of Dante Alighieri. Sayers, Hell , notes on Canto XI. Sayers, Hell , notes on Canto XV. Sayers , Hell , notes on Canto XX. The Nervous Breakdown. Retrieved 7 March Inferno Dante. Dante Alighieri.
De vulgari eloquentia De Monarchia Eclogues. Inferno Purgatorio Paradiso Cultural references. Contrapasso Dante Encyclopedia Enciclopedia Dantesca. Let's get philosophical 2: Electric Boogaloo ", "We use robots for cheap mechanized labor but now they're sentient and want to be treated like people, so we should probably just kill them before the blender starts getting ideas - Let's get philosophical 3: Tokyo Drift ", and the big favorite "robot racism", also known as: " Let's get philosphical 4: On Stranger Tides. Red : Let's ask, why is the dragon the iconic fantasy creature?
Okay, sorry, I'll stop. Athena : What. Blue : If you got the sense that Lepidus didn't matter, it's ok. Because you're right. He didn't. Red : This whole debacle is such an incredibly apt metaphor for the flaws inherent in the colonial system and how the lust for gold literally blinded them to the true, unique value of the New World, that if I read it in a book, I would have called the writer a hack. Blue: In a shocking twist of fate, Agamemnon is Red: So, Agamemnon. Let me start this off by stating my personal opinion on this famous Greek hero. Child 1: Oh no! Murder is happening! Child 2: How unfortuitous!
Red : So if you're keeping track, that's an exhaustive life story note the monster's life story inside another exhaustive life story note Victor's life story that poor Captain Walton is transcribing in its entirety to mail to his sister. Red: Just like his creator, the monster spends an inordinate amount of time waxing eloquent about how all that horrible stuff he did really hurt HIM , and isn't THAT the important thing to consider right now? The Monster: You think it was easy for me to ruin Victor's life? I'm not a monster , I have feelings too! Walton: Yeah, I'm sure Clerval would be so sympathetic. Dionysus: You got me, I thought it was foolproof.
Zeus : Aphrodite, you silly girl! What were you doing out on the battlefield? Red : Tolkien 's crippling arachnophobia didn't die for this. Blue : It's just so infuriating and primitive to have two different sets of units for the exact same measurements! Gosh, could you imagine? Blue : Oh no, don't tell me - their highly efficient yet terrifyingly fragile infrastructure totally collapsed when changes to climate made it impossible to reliably provide resources! Blue : The Sumerians attempted to build a wall to keep out western barbarians, but that went about as well as it always does.
Villain : You see hero, with my friends at my side I cannot lose. Hero : I call hacks! Hero : Wow, it's weird seeing this from the outside. The giants Well, this is terrible! We have to do something! Adaptational Jerkass : Discussed in the video about king Arthur. Modern versions of the story tend to villify either Arthur or Lancelot, depending on which side of the affair they support: Arthur is either a scorned husband who's royal duty demands he execute his beloved wife, or a bore who's too busy ruling to spend time with Guinevere. Lancelot is either a breath of fresh air who lifts Guinevere out of her unhappy marriage, or an asshole who slept with his best friend's wife. Guinevere's role in the matter is rarely considered as important.
All Just a Dream : Gets its own video. Red even offers a theory as to why this trope is near-universally hated when used as a Framing Device : namely, that it is essentially a low blow aimed straight to the Willing Suspension of Disbelief. After the reader have put in the work to invest themselves into a fictional work, suddenly reminding them within the confines of the story that it is all fiction and none of it ever mattered is frustrating to hell and back, and it requires some seriously good execution to not just leave the reader with a bad taste in their mouth.
The definition of hero constantly fluctuates depending on social values pointing out how, for instance, Captain America stayed an Ideal Hero despite going from perfect model soldier in wartimes to maverick challenging authority in the name of his own values in a more peaceful age, or how Classical Mythology would set a guy as antiheroic simply for favoring brains over brawn ; and with it, so does its opposite number, the anti-hero. She tries to design a chart based around motives and methods, only to point out that this reasoning puts The Punisher , usually the example of an Anti-Hero , as a straight-up Villain Protagonist.
In the end, this is ultimately more of a subjective label set by the readers than a true archetype. Red: If you're writing a character Maybe they'll be seen as an Anti-Hero , maybe they won't. Maybe anti-heroes just don't mean anything. Language is made up anyway. Instantly kills whoever messes with it. Again, usually villains-only Kind of a basic karmic punishment Renders the whole race for the Macguffin retroactively pointless. She defines this trope as something that drives the plot by being wanted, and solely by the fact that people want it; it could be replaced with anything else and the story would barely change in fact some examples, like the briefcase from Pulp Fiction , never even show what the item is.
If it actually does something for the plot, then it's not a MacGuffin. For instance, she contrasts the Unobtainium from Avatar , which has a theoretical use , but that use is never relevant and it only matters as the source of the central conflict, and the One Ring , which factors very heavily into the story by its nature and not just because characters are fighting over it. Magnificent Bastard : She covers "Magnificent Bastard" in an episode. She also briefly discusses some of the offshoots of this trope: the Jerk Sue , the Villain Sue , and the Possession Sue. Red posits that the mentor is prime Character Death fodder because not only having a character around that's both a crutch to and more competent than The Hero is not a good idea, they are also often SatelliteCharacters with little personal arc beyond their relation to their pupil; making them quickly irrelevant as the story progresses, and thus allowing them to be killed off for emotional impact with little damage to the story's potential.
Then she dedicates a good third of the video to Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse , a movie about a kid dealing with half a dozen mentor figures, all with different roles and methods. Red states that a better use of this trope is when there is truth to the villain's words. Obfuscating Stupidity : Red brings this up as a subtrope of the Crouching Moron, Hidden Badass ; "Fakers" like Vash the Stampede or Himura Kenshin are badasses that pretend to be morons for personal reasons like trying to distance themselves from violent pasts or for just liking to goof around. Our Dragons Are Different : Red talks about dragons in Trope Talk: Dragons , where she discusses both the mythical origins of dragons, including the extremely common theme of a draconic or serpentine monster being fought by a storm deity, as well as their uses in modern media.
Firstly, she identifies and discusses a number of common types of dragons and of narrative themes they tend to be matched with: "Apocalyptic dragons" are disproportionately huge creatures, often based on mythical entities such as Tiamat or the Leviathan. They're plot devices more than characters and tend to be relegated to the backstory or epic end-of-story battles — unless it's a Kaiju movie, in which case they're gonna be central parts of the story.
She uses a picture of Ancalagon , who's claim to fame is being larger and heavier than three mountains the size of mount Everest. They are usually mentor figures, distant protectors or imparters of missions and information, and don't usually figure as central characters. This may be used to explain where half-dragons come from, and it's not uncommon for a villain to turn into a dragon during a final confrontation. Draconic curses are a similar concept where someone is quickly or gradually turned into a dragon, and tend to be inspired by Fafnir. Often, this is a karmic punishment for extreme greed.
Sometimes the transformation is more mental than physical. Dragon Hoards draw from both Germanic and Greek myth, and although they fell from favor in the middle ages they're extremely common in modern fiction. A dragon's motives for hoarding treasure vary based on its characterization and intelligence. Dragons kidnapping damsels got into its stride in the middle ages, as the usual motivation for dragonslaying — getting the dragon's gold — was seen as too base and greedy a motivation for a noble hero, so a more righteous goal was substituted. Nowadays it's seen as very cliched, so it's typically inverted, subverted, and otherwise messed around with. Non-evil, misunderstood dragons are increasingly popular.
Intelligent ones can usually be talked to in order to get their side of things; more animalistic ones requite more careful handling. Dragon Riders are a very recent development, and were by and large invented by Anne McCaffrey for her Dragonriders of Pern novels. These dragons are noble steeds, sometimes intelligent and sometimes not, and have become popular on the basis that dragons are awesome and, ergo, riding one makes you awesome as well.
She also analyzes the weight and importance stories tend to give to dragons and the sheer breadth of different shapes, traits and characteristics something can have while still being a dragon — overall, "dragon" as a term is much more flexible than other mythical creatures, which vary only slightly from their base form before not reading as that thing anymore, and is more of a loose category bound by certain common themes rather than a single specific thing. The only thing dragons really share, besides being at least somewhat reptilian, is being very powerful, very important and usually very big. Modern fiction's occasional use of tiny, weak dragons is almost always a deliberate subversion of a well-known expectation. The main reason fantasy uses dragons as often as it does is because dragons are an universal element in many stories throughout the world, while most fantastical creatures are limited by their geography, and because of the sense of gravitas and importance that dragons carry with them in modern culture.
The Paragon : Red actually loves seeing The Paragon in stories because they facilitate character growth on those around them. Pinball Protagonist : Discussed in "Dystopias", where it is acknowledged that a typical freedom-crushing dystopia can lead to a protagonist who never acts because they are incapable of acting. Planet of Hats : Red examines the various types of common Hats historically-based or otherwise and explains its origins. She also explains how, while many fantasy races are based on either Tolkien's Legendarium or real-life cultures, the trope is actually subverted by both of those instances: a Planet of Hats is what you get when you take a cursory glance at most cultures and then apply that stereotype to the whole.
She brings up the issue that despite power creep exisiting to combat boredom in a story, it often ends up causing boredom since there's no reason for the audience to get invested in a powerup if they know the story is going to make it obsolete after one fight. She discusses how a villain often gives the hero a Sadistic Choice between the world and their loved one. Choosing the loved one is objectively dumb, but to an audience who knows said loved one better than they know seven billion anonymous faces, it might seem like the best choice. Rule of Three : Red explains that everything comes in threes in stories because three is a large enough number to be interesting without being too large to keep track of.
Shipping Bed Death : In the Trope Talk about "Romantic Subplots", Red points out the commonly cited idea that the audience cares more about the journey to the relationship rather than the relationship itself. But when that's resolved, a lot of stories don't actually explore the couple as a couple, as the rest of their time together is spent either being non-characters outside of the coupling or having drama infect the plot so that they can remain "interesting" to the audience. As Red points out, saving the loved ones is objectively the wrong choice, no matter what school of ethics you subscribe to, but the audience will be more invested in the fate of one person they know than that of seven billion nobodies. Therefore they will sympathize more with saving the loved one until Fridge Logic kicks in, at least.
Sadly Mythtaken : Discussed in "Urban Fantasy", where Red mentions how writers will often pull mythological creatures or deities of ancient cultures into a modern setting without realizing the dissonance removing them from their original context causes. She stresses how important it is to do your research when including mythological figures in your fiction, or you may end up with Unfortunate Implications , especially if the mythology you're drawing from comes from a religion still practised today.
She also discusses how writers often use names from native cultures like "Wendigo" and "Skin-Walker" for generic monsters because they sound cooler than, say, "snow beast" and "shape-shifter", while ignoring the folklore behind those names. Red says that if you're going to include creatures or myths from folklore that's not your own, do your homework to avoid getting it wrong. Red discusses how previous protagonists usually fall under one of two extremes: not changing at all despite a decades-long Time Skip , or changing so much it's hard to believe they're the same character. She also discusses how, since most stories follow an Extremely Short Timespan , it can feel unnatural when a Time Skip treats decades as being uneventful for the characters.
Tiny dragons, however, are almost always a deliberate subversion of this trope, playing on the audience's expectations that dragons are in fact big and powerful by presenting the shoulder-sized dragon's cuteness and tiny size as something of a living paradox. Silly Rabbit, Cynicism Is for Losers! She thinks that the idealists ultimately have it better. The world can get dark, yes, but one look at history will tell you that is has gotten immensely better over time, usually thanks to idealists.
Stuffed in the Fridge : Discussed in "Fridging". To define the trope, Red creates a test echoing the "sexy lamp test". Uncle Owen and Aunt Beru are the primary example Red uses, since they have little to no impact on the story aside from being killed so Luke can be sad for a minute and have a motivation to go to Alderaan. Lisa Tepes , on the other hand, does not qualify as being Fridged in Red's eyes, since Red argues that Lisa's death is given appropriate focus, and it motivates two of the show's most important characters in Big Bad Dracula and Deuteragonist Alucard for the entire series, long after Lisa is gone.
Superpowered Evil Side : Red covers Superpowered Evil Sides in which she talks about powers that has a cost of a dark personality that can affect the hero. Red states that bad character deaths are solely for shock value and take away a character who otherwise could provide interesting plot or character scenarios and development, using Quicksilver from the Marvel Cinematic Universe as an example; had he lived through Avengers: Age of Ultron , he would have sided with Tony during Captain America: Civil War , putting him at odds with his twin sister Wanda, and then surving the Snap and being one of the few heroes actually doing any heroics during the five year time skip, with more confilct arising when the Snap is undone and Wanda is now five years younger than him and still reeling from the events of Avengers: Infinity War.
Too Bleak, Stopped Caring : Red discusses this as it relates to "grimdark", saying that it's very easy to fall into this trap with some kinds of stories and some genres, especially apocalypse stories. In general, Red discourages a lot of grimdark elements, saying it's a Pet-Peeve Trope of hers. Red also admits that she can't stand stories that treat hope as a flawed or childish concept , arguing that hope is essential to the human condition and that believing things will only get worse creates a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy where people don't believe anything will get better, so they don't try to make things better. Or even worse, they'll actively try to prevent people from making things better to protect their own ego because they would rather watch everything go down in flames than admit they were wrong.
There are clear difference with each time period, like Classic Tragedy making use of chorus who tells the fourth wall of the situation, Shakespearean Tragedy utilizes Collateral Damage, where people die due to the protagonist's flaw, and Modern tragedy subverting certain traditions like the protagnist being a middle class worker instead of a king, they all share a story where the protagonists fall because of their Fatal Flaw. What makes a tragedy is the suspense; the twist in a tragedy isn't if the protagonist will experience a fall from grace, but when and how they'll fall. Tropes Are Tools : Red firmly believes in this, and fairly often brings the view that tropes are very rarely bad. The sole exception so far is Stuffed in the Fridge , outright saying that it's a bad trope that encourages lazy writing, and treats the characters, in-universe and out, as entities by the writer to move the story along, meaning the writer s did not care for the character at all in regards to the story, and just wanted someone to die.
Unfortunate Implications : invoked "Robots" discusses this trope when it comes to using robots or a fantasy species like orcs or goblins as a metaphor for the discrimination minorities face in the real world. Red notes that humans have a tendency to recognize patterns, so if all members of the species have some common trait, such as laziness or greed, the audience will analyze this and think this is how the author sees the minority group that species is supposed to represent. Red also notes that real world bigots use excuses like "they aren't human" and "they're monsters" to justify their bigotry of different groups, so using a different species like robots as a metaphor can backfire on the creator, even if they're trying to take an anti-bigotry stance.
Red points out that this isn't racism on the audience's part and not how they see the group, but rather the audience believes this is how the author sees that group, which can make them seem unintentionally racist. Values Dissonance : Mentions in "Post Apocalypses" that it is difficult for modern audiences to truly understand the depth of the "Nuclear Weapons Are Bad" aesop that started in the midst of the Cold War because in those times, the fear of nuclear war was much more prevalent than in modern times. It allows writer to reveal character motivation and development without disrupting the status quo. What You Are in the Dark : As a corollary to the Loner archetype, it is how writers characterize the Loner character as a way to show depths outside of their loneliness.
For example, she uses The Mandalorian as an example as the titular character could have collect the bounty by turning in the Child but instead is putting himself on the run from everybody to keep the Child safe. Write What You Know : In Red's opinion, this doesn't mean you have to live the exact experiences you're writing; you can simply bring up the nearest equivalent that you have already experienced. And if you can't, then it doesn't hurt to get in touch with someone who can do such a thing to help your writing.
Then there's the issue of writing diversity. Red admits that the topic is so politically charged, any answer you pick will have someone complaining about it. Avoid diversity altogether? Even moreso! Have a diverse cast, but don't really do anything special with that diversity? Meaningless tokenism! Actually do your research on other people, and use it as part of your writing?
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