① Peter Honey And Alan Mumford
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BSPT 2C - Honey and Mumford's Learning Styles
The job that I took on included some of these responsibilities:. The skills I needed from the job would be required on the module that I undertook. Skills of a performance analyst are important to success in elite sport. The first learning experience I encountered while working at Blackpool Football Club was understanding how to us the software. I had previously encountered the software during my first year at UCLan. I could only justify my experiences dependent on the feedback I received from the staff members at Blackpool, if whenever I got a positive comment, I knew that I had used the software correctly. Whenever I got an insight in how to do it to the professional standards.
Kolb states that learning involves the acquisition of abstract concepts that can be applied flexibly in a range of situations Bilyk and Ivonne, I am able to look at things from different perspectives. I prefer to watch rather than do, tending to gather information and use imagination to solve problems. People with a diverging learning style have broad cultural interests and like to gather information. Working, as a team in professional sport is one of the biggest acquisitions you need when trying to be successful. Without that bond between staff and players. A good, solid working environment cannot be created. The study found that even when being told they had a specific learning style, the students did not change their study habits, and those students that did use their theoretically dominant learning style had no greater success in the course; specific study strategies, unrelated to learning style, were positively correlated with final course grade.
Various researchers have attempted to hypothesize ways in which learning style theory can be used in the classroom. Two such scholars are Rita Dunn and Kenneth Dunn, who build upon a learning modalities approach. Although learning styles will inevitably differ among students in the classroom, Dunn and Dunn say that teachers should try to make changes in their classroom that will be beneficial to every learning style.
Some of these changes include room redesign, the development of small-group techniques, and the development of "contract activity packages". Dunn and Dunn's "contract activity packages" are educational plans that use: a clear statement of the learning need; multisensory resources auditory, visual, tactile, kinesthetic ; activities through which the newly mastered information can be used creatively; the sharing of creative projects within small groups; at least three small-group techniques; a pre-test, a self-test, and a post-test. Dunn and Dunn's learning styles model is widely used in schools in the United States, and articles have been published in peer-reviewed journals referring to this model. Another scholar who believes that learning styles should have an effect on the classroom is Marilee Sprenger in Differentiation through Learning Styles and Memory.
Methods for visual learners include ensuring that students can see words written, using pictures, and drawing timelines for events. James W. Keefe and John M. Jenkins have incorporated learning style assessment as a basic component in their "personalized instruction" model of schooling. The cultural components—teacher role, student learning characteristics, and collegial relationships—establish the foundation of personalization and ensure that the school prizes a caring and collaborative environment.
The contextual factors—interactivity, flexible scheduling, and authentic assessment—establish the structure of personalization. According to Keefe and Jenkins, cognitive and learning style analysis have a special role in the process of personalizing instruction. The assessment of student learning style, more than any other element except the teacher role, establishes the foundation for a personalized approach to schooling: for student advisement and placement, for appropriate retraining of student cognitive skills, for adaptive instructional strategy, and for the authentic evaluation of learning.
Other learners, however, need help to function successfully in any learning environment. If a youngster cannot cope under conventional instruction, enhancing his cognitive skills may make successful achievement possible. Many of the student learning problems that learning style diagnosis attempts to solve relate directly to elements of the human information processing system. Processes such as attention, perception and memory, and operations such as integration and retrieval of information are internal to the system. Any hope for improving student learning necessarily involves an understanding and application of information processing theory. Learning style assessment can provide a window to understanding and managing this process. At least one study evaluating teaching styles and learning styles, however, has found that congruent groups have no significant differences in achievement from incongruent groups.
While significant age differences did occur, as well as no experimental manipulation of classroom assignment, the findings do call into question the aim of congruent teaching—learning styles in the classroom. Educational researchers Eileen Carnell and Caroline Lodge concluded that learning styles are not fixed and that they are dependent on circumstance, purpose and conditions. Learning style theories have been criticized by many scholars and researchers. Some psychologists and neuroscientists have questioned the scientific basis for separating out students based on learning style. According to Susan Greenfield the practice is "nonsense" from a neuroscientific point of view: "Humans have evolved to build a picture of the world through our senses working in unison, exploiting the immense interconnectivity that exists in the brain.
Many educational psychologists have shown that there is little evidence for the efficacy of most learning style models, and furthermore, that the models often rest on dubious theoretical grounds. Some research has shown that long-term retention can better be achieved under conditions that seem more difficult, and that teaching students only in their preferred learning style is not effective. Psychologists Scott Lilienfeld , Barry Beyerstein , and colleagues listed as one of the "50 great myths of popular psychology" the idea that "students learn best when teaching styles are matched to their learning styles", and they summarized some relevant reasons not to believe this "myth".
Coffield and his colleagues and Mark Smith are not alone in their judgements. The Demos report said that the evidence for learning styles was "highly variable", and that practitioners were "not by any means always frank about the evidence for their work". Cautioning against interpreting neuropsychological research as supporting the applicability of learning style theory, John Geake, Professor of Education at the UK's Oxford Brookes University , and a research collaborator with Oxford University 's Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, commented in "We need to take extreme care when moving from the lab to the classroom.
We do remember things visually and aurally, but information isn't defined by how it was received. The work of Daniel T. Willingham , a cognitive psychologist and neuroscientist, has argued that there is not enough evidence to support a theory describing the differences in learning styles amongst students. In his book Why Don't Students Like School ,  he claimed that a cognitive styles theory must have three features: "it should consistently attribute to a person the same style, it should show that people with different abilities think and learn differently, and it should show that people with different styles do not, on average, differ in ability".
In late , the journal Psychological Science in the Public Interest of the Association for Psychological Science APS published a report on the scientific validity of learning styles practices. Specifically, students should be grouped into the learning style categories that are being evaluated e. At the end of the experiment, all students must sit for the same test. If the learning style hypothesis is correct, then, for example, visual learners should learn better with the visual method, whereas auditory learners should learn better with the auditory method.
As disclosed in the report, the panel found that studies utilizing this essential research design were virtually absent from the learning styles literature. In fact, the panel was able to find only a few studies with this research design, and all but one of these studies were negative findings—that is, they found that the same learning method was superior for all kinds of students. Massa and Richard E. Mayer ,  as well as more recent research since the review. Furthermore, the panel noted that, even if the requisite finding were obtained, the benefits would need to be large, and not just statistically significant, before learning style interventions could be recommended as cost-effective. That is, the cost of evaluating and classifying students by their learning style, and then providing customized instruction would need to be more beneficial than other interventions e.
As a consequence, the panel concluded, "at present, there is no adequate evidence base to justify incorporating learning styles assessments into general educational practice. Thus, limited education resources would better be devoted to adopting other educational practices that have strong evidence base, of which there are an increasing number. The article incited critical comments from some defenders of learning styles. The Chronicle of Higher Education reported that Robert Sternberg from Tufts University spoke out against the paper: "Several of the most-cited researchers on learning styles, Mr. Sternberg points out, do not appear in the paper's bibliography. Kolb partly agreed with Pashler; Kolb said: "The paper correctly mentions the practical and ethical problems of sorting people into groups and labeling them.
Tracking in education has a bad history. A review paper  examined the studies of learning styles completed after the APS critique,  giving particular attention to studies that used the experimental methods advocated for by Pashler et al. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Largely debunked theories that aim to account for differences in individuals' learning. Philosophy portal Psychology portal. Learning styles and pedagogy in post learning: a systematic and critical review PDF.
London: Learning and Skills Research Centre. ISBN OCLC Archived from the original PDF on July Teaching of Psychology. S2CID December Psychological Science in the Public Interest. PMID Ways of learning: learning theories and learning styles in the classroom 3rd ed. In Gurung, Regan A. Getting culture: incorporating diversity across the curriculum. Sterling, VA: Stylus. Retrieved 18 September Frontiers in Psychology. PMC January Journal of Curriculum Studies. A Pragmatic Systematic Review". Frontiers in Education. ISSN X. Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development 2nd ed.
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