⒈ Mary Stuart Research Paper

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Mary Stuart Research Paper



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Medea even goes so far as to poison Megareus through the misleading gift of a robe and crown. She refused to attend the funeral. Her father Henry was now relief of his former wife 's death because this meant he is now allowed to be happy with Anne and free form the fear of war. Another greater news Anne was pregnant again bringing hope to Henry for a male heir, but unfortanlly she had a miscarriage.

With Henry disappointments of the miscarriage rumors had spread that Anne been having affairs so she was sent to jail. Later May 19 Anne Boleyn would be executed after the execution of Anne, Henry married again to Jane Seymour, Mary had hope for change between her and her father. Anne was frustrated at me and through a vase at me. It turned out that once she had given birth, the child was indeed a girl. Anne and my father called her Elizabeth. My father was trying to become head of the church so that Elizabeth would not be claimed a bastard like me. I refused to sign, therefore I was throne into the dungeon in the…. Essays Essays FlashCards. Browse Essays. Sign in. Essay Sample Check Writing Quality. Show More. Read More. Words: - Pages: 5.

Words: - Pages: 6. Words: - Pages: 3. Lady Macbeth's Relationship Their thirst for power made them only focused on staying in the throne until she committed suicide, and he was killed trying to defend the throne that was not rightfully his. Words: - Pages: 4. Mary Tudor Personality She refused to attend the funeral. Words: - Pages: Dudley was Sir Henry Sidney's brother-in-law and the English queen's own favourite , whom Elizabeth trusted and thought she could control. Mary was horrified and banished him from Scotland. He ignored the edict.

Two days later, he forced his way into her chamber as she was about to disrobe. She reacted with fury and fear. When Moray rushed into the room after hearing her cries for help, she shouted, "Thrust your dagger into the villain! Chastelard was tried for treason and beheaded. Darnley's parents, the Earl and Countess of Lennox , were Scottish aristocrats as well as English landowners. They sent him to France ostensibly to extend their condolences, while hoping for a potential match between their son and Mary.

English statesmen William Cecil and the Earl of Leicester had worked to obtain Darnley's licence to travel to Scotland from his home in England. Mary's marriage to a leading Catholic precipitated Mary's half-brother, the Earl of Moray , to join with other Protestant lords, including Lords Argyll and Glencairn , in open rebellion. On the 30th, Moray entered Edinburgh but left soon afterward, having failed to take the castle. Mary returned to Edinburgh the following month to raise more troops. Mary's numbers were boosted by the release and restoration to favour of Lord Huntly's son and the return of James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell , from exile in France. Before long, Darnley grew arrogant. Not content with his position as king consort, he demanded the Crown Matrimonial , which would have made him a co-sovereign of Scotland with the right to keep the Scottish throne for himself, if he outlived his wife.

He was jealous of her friendship with her Catholic private secretary, David Rizzio , who was rumoured to be the father of her child. They took temporary refuge in Dunbar Castle before returning to Edinburgh on 18 March. However, the murder of Rizzio led to the breakdown of her marriage. Immediately after her return to Jedburgh, she suffered a serious illness that included frequent vomiting, loss of sight, loss of speech, convulsions and periods of unconsciousness. She was thought to be dying. Her recovery from 25 October onwards was credited to the skill of her French physicians. Potential diagnoses include physical exhaustion and mental stress, [] haemorrhage of a gastric ulcer, [] and porphyria.

At Craigmillar Castle , near Edinburgh, at the end of November , Mary and leading nobles held a meeting to discuss the "problem of Darnley". He remained ill for some weeks. In late January , Mary prompted her husband to return to Edinburgh. He recuperated from his illness in a house belonging to the brother of Sir James Balfour at the former abbey of Kirk o' Field , just within the city wall. Darnley was found dead in the garden, apparently smothered. I should ill fulfil the office of a faithful cousin or an affectionate friend if I did not Men say that, instead of seizing the murderers, you are looking through your fingers while they escape; that you will not seek revenge on those who have done you so much pleasure, as though the deed would never have taken place had not the doers of it been assured of impunity.

For myself, I beg you to believe that I would not harbour such a thought. By the end of February, Bothwell was generally believed to be guilty of Darnley's assassination. In the absence of Lennox and with no evidence presented, Bothwell was acquitted after a seven-hour trial on 12 April. Between 21 and 23 April , Mary visited her son at Stirling for the last time. On her way back to Edinburgh on 24 April, Mary was abducted, willingly or not, by Lord Bothwell and his men and taken to Dunbar Castle , where he may have raped her. Originally, Mary believed that many nobles supported her marriage, but relations quickly soured between the newly elevated Bothwell created Duke of Orkney and his former peers and the marriage proved to be deeply unpopular. Catholics considered the marriage unlawful, since they did not recognise Bothwell's divorce or the validity of the Protestant service.

Both Protestants and Catholics were shocked that Mary should marry the man accused of murdering her husband. Twenty-six Scottish peers , known as the confederate lords, turned against Mary and Bothwell and raised their own army. Mary and Bothwell confronted the lords at Carberry Hill on 15 June, but there was no battle, as Mary's forces dwindled away through desertion during negotiations. The lords took Mary to Edinburgh, where crowds of spectators denounced her as an adulteress and murderer.

He was imprisoned in Denmark, became insane and died in Mary apparently expected Elizabeth to help her regain her throne. As an anointed queen, Mary refused to acknowledge the power of any court to try her. She refused to attend the inquiry at York personally but sent representatives. Elizabeth forbade her attendance anyway. All were said to have been found in a silver-gilt casket just less than one foot 30 cm long and decorated with the monogram of King Francis II. He sent copies to Elizabeth, saying that if they were genuine, they might prove Mary's guilt. The authenticity of the casket letters has been the source of much controversy among historians.

It is impossible now to prove either way. The originals, written in French, were possibly destroyed in by Mary's son. There are incomplete printed transcriptions in English, Scots, French, and Latin from the s. Moray had sent a messenger in September to Dunbar to get a copy of the proceedings from the town's registers. Mary's biographers, such as Antonia Fraser , Alison Weir , and John Guy , have come to the conclusion that either the documents were complete forgeries, [] or incriminating passages were inserted into genuine letters, [] or the letters were written to Bothwell by a different person or written by Mary to a different person. The casket letters did not appear publicly until the Conference of , although the Scottish privy council had seen them by December The letters were never made public to support her imprisonment and forced abdication.

Historian Jenny Wormald believes this reluctance on the part of the Scots to produce the letters and their destruction in , whatever their content, constitute proof that they contained real evidence against Mary. Among them was the Duke of Norfolk, [] who secretly conspired to marry Mary in the course of the commission, although he denied it when Elizabeth alluded to his marriage plans, saying "he meant never to marry with a person, where he could not be sure of his pillow". The majority of the commissioners accepted the casket letters as genuine after a study of their contents and comparison of the penmanship with examples of Mary's handwriting. There was never any intention to proceed judicially; the conference was intended as a political exercise.

In the end, Moray returned to Scotland as regent and Mary remained in custody in England. Elizabeth had succeeded in maintaining a Protestant government in Scotland, without either condemning or releasing her fellow sovereign. On 26 January , Mary was moved to Tutbury Castle [] and placed in the custody of the Earl of Shrewsbury and his formidable wife Bess of Hardwick. Mary was permitted her own domestic staff, which never numbered fewer than By the s, she had severe rheumatism in her limbs, rendering her lame. In May , Elizabeth attempted to mediate the restoration of Mary in return for guarantees of the Protestant religion, but a convention held at Perth rejected the deal overwhelmingly.

His death coincided with a rebellion in the North of England , led by Catholic earls, which persuaded Elizabeth that Mary was a threat. English troops intervened in the Scottish civil war, consolidating the power of the anti-Marian forces. Norfolk was executed and the English Parliament introduced a bill barring Mary from the throne, to which Elizabeth refused to give royal assent. In , Mary proposed an "association" with her son, James. She announced that she was ready to stay in England, to renounce the Pope's bull of excommunication, and to retire, abandoning her pretensions to the English Crown. She also offered to join an offensive league against France.

For Scotland, she proposed a general amnesty, agreed that James should marry with Elizabeth's knowledge, and accepted that there should be no change in religion. Her only condition was the immediate alleviation of the conditions of her captivity. James went along with the idea for a while, but eventually rejected it and signed an alliance treaty with Elizabeth, abandoning his mother. In February , William Parry was convicted of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth, without Mary's knowledge, although her agent Thomas Morgan was implicated.

On 11 August , after being implicated in the Babington Plot , Mary was arrested while out riding and taken to Tixall Hall in Staffordshire. Mary was misled into thinking her letters were secure, while in reality they were deciphered and read by Walsingham. Mary was moved to Fotheringhay Castle in a four-day journey ending on 25 September. In October, she was put on trial for treason under the Act for the Queen's Safety before a court of 36 noblemen, [] including Cecil, Shrewsbury, and Walsingham.

She was convicted on 25 October and sentenced to death with only one commissioner, Lord Zouche , expressing any form of dissent. She was concerned that the killing of a queen set a discreditable precedent and was fearful of the consequences, especially if, in retaliation, Mary's son, James, formed an alliance with the Catholic powers and invaded England. Elizabeth asked Paulet, Mary's final custodian, if he would contrive a clandestine way to "shorten the life" of Mary, which he refused to do on the grounds that he would not make "a shipwreck of my conscience, or leave so great a blot on my poor posterity".

At Fotheringhay, on the evening of 7 February , Mary was told she was to be executed the next morning. It was reached by two or three steps, and furnished with the block, a cushion for her to kneel on, and three stools for her and the earls of Shrewsbury and Kent , who were there to witness the execution. The executioner Bull and his assistant knelt before her and asked forgiveness, as it was typical for the executioner to request the pardon of the one being put to death.

Mary replied, "I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles. Mary was not beheaded with a single strike. The first blow missed her neck and struck the back of her head. The second blow severed the neck, except for a small bit of sinew, which the executioner cut through using the axe. Afterwards, he held her head aloft and declared "God save the Queen. When the news of the execution reached Elizabeth, she became indignant and asserted that Davison had disobeyed her instructions not to part with the warrant and that the Privy Council had acted without her authority.

He was released nineteen months later, after Cecil and Walsingham interceded on his behalf. Mary's request to be buried in France was refused by Elizabeth. He was ultimately found with Henry VII. Many of her other descendants, including Elizabeth of Bohemia , Prince Rupert of the Rhine and the children of Anne, Queen of Great Britain , were interred in her vault. Assessments of Mary in the 16th century divided between Protestant reformers such as George Buchanan and John Knox , who vilified her mercilessly, and Catholic apologists such as Adam Blackwood , who praised, defended and eulogised her.

It condemned Buchanan's work as an invention, [] and "emphasized Mary's evil fortunes rather than her evil character". Cowan also produced more balanced works. Historian Jenny Wormald concluded that Mary was a tragic failure, who was unable to cope with the demands placed on her, [] but hers was a rare dissenting view in a post-Fraser tradition that Mary was a pawn in the hands of scheming noblemen. Such accusations rest on assumptions, [] and Buchanan's biography is today discredited as "almost complete fantasy". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Mary, Queen of Scots disambiguation. Queen of Scotland. Peterborough Cathedral 28 October Westminster Abbey. Francis II of France. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley.

James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell. Main article: Murder of Lord Darnley. Loch Leven Castle. Workington Hall. Carlisle Castle. Bolton Castle. Main article: Casket letters. In this article, dates before are Old Style, with the exception that years are assumed to start on 1 January rather than 25 March. The phrase was first recorded by John Knox in the s as, "The devil go with it! It will end as it began: it came from a woman; and it will end in a woman" Wormald , pp.

The disputed will is printed in Historical Manuscripts Commission London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Catherine's interests competed with those of the Guise family, and there may have been an element of jealousy or rivalry between the two queens Donaldson , pp. Paris: Annet Briere. Paris: Renouard. The Wars of Religion in France. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN London: Andrew Melrose, pp. Glasgow: W. John Knox claimed the surgeons who examined the body were lying and that Darnley had been strangled, but all the sources agree that there were no marks on the body, and there was no reason for the surgeons to lie as Darnley was murdered either way Weir , p.

For other versions see Guy , p. Other contemporaries dismissed the abduction as bogus Donaldson , p. See also Guy , pp. In response, Mary's commissioners withdrew from the inquiry Weir , pp. Inventaires de la Royne d'Ecosse. Edinburgh: Bannatyne Club. The Crime of Mary Stuart. London: Hutchinson. Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. Letter Book of Amias Paulet , pp.

Execution of Mary Stuart". In von Klarwill, Victor ed. The Fugger Newsletters. Bain, Joseph, ed. Bingham, Caroline Boyd, William K.

Mary then turned her attention to finding a new husband from the royalty Mary Stuart Research Paper Europe. Mary was the queen of Scotland and Ireland, but became queen of another country. King Neoliberalization In Health Care VI Mary Stuart Research Paper Scotland, a descendant of the Stuart Dynasty, took the throne To Kill A Mockingbird Film Analysis the first The Fragmentation Stages In The Fashion Industry of England with the title of King James I of England in upon Mary Stuart Research Paper death of Mary Stuart Research Paper Elisabeth I Mary Stuart Research Paper, the last Tudor Monarch — uniting the crowns of England and Scotland with Mary Stuart Research Paper Scot appointed as king Mary Stuart Research Paper both parliaments for the first time in history. Mary Stuart Research Paper casket letters did not appear Mary Stuart Research Paper until Mary Stuart Research Paper Conference ofMary Stuart Research Paper the Scottish privy council had seen Mary Stuart Research Paper by December