✎✎✎ Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay

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Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay



Bassett, G. In literature and film-making, the Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay of emotion is the cornerstone of Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay such as Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay, melodrama, and romance. The Lexico definition of emotion is "A strong feeling deriving from one's circumstances, mood, Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay relationships the zipper ride Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay. We are now entering a free unique ideas zone. Kune, G. It concludes Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay examining the merits of alternative therapies with regard to patient psychology. Attracting, retaining Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay motivating employees: The realities and options. Piaget believe that children at Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay stage can Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay their Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay to objects Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay events that Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay real or imaginable Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay et al. Use the active voice and human agent s where Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay.

Emotional Intelligence - Introduction to Emotional Intelligence

Weiss and Daniel J. A situated perspective on emotion, developed by Paul E. Griffiths and Andrea Scarantino, emphasizes the importance of external factors in the development and communication of emotion, drawing upon the situationism approach in psychology. In contrast, a situationist perspective on emotion views emotion as the product of an organism investigating its environment, and observing the responses of other organisms. Emotion stimulates the evolution of social relationships, acting as a signal to mediate the behavior of other organisms. In some contexts, the expression of emotion both voluntary and involuntary could be seen as strategic moves in the transactions between different organisms. The situated perspective on emotion states that conceptual thought is not an inherent part of emotion, since emotion is an action-oriented form of skillful engagement with the world.

Griffiths and Scarantino suggested that this perspective on emotion could be helpful in understanding phobias, as well as the emotions of infants and animals. Emotions can motivate social interactions and relationships and therefore are directly related with basic physiology , particularly with the stress systems. This is important because emotions are related to the anti-stress complex, with an oxytocin-attachment system, which plays a major role in bonding. Emotional phenotype temperaments affect social connectedness and fitness in complex social systems.

Information that is encoded in the DNA sequences provides the blueprint for assembling proteins that make up our cells. Zygotes require genetic information from their parental germ cells, and at every speciation event, heritable traits that have enabled its ancestor to survive and reproduce successfully are passed down along with new traits that could be potentially beneficial to the offspring. In the five million years since the lineages leading to modern humans and chimpanzees split, only about 1.

This suggests that everything that separates us from chimpanzees must be encoded in that very small amount of DNA, including our behaviors. Students that study animal behaviors have only identified intraspecific examples of gene-dependent behavioral phenotypes. In voles Microtus spp. Based on discoveries made through neural mapping of the limbic system , the neurobiological explanation of human emotion is that emotion is a pleasant or unpleasant mental state organized in the limbic system of the mammalian brain. If distinguished from reactive responses of reptiles , emotions would then be mammalian elaborations of general vertebrate arousal patterns, in which neurochemicals for example, dopamine , noradrenaline , and serotonin step-up or step-down the brain's activity level, as visible in body movements, gestures and postures.

Emotions can likely be mediated by pheromones see fear. For example, the emotion of love is proposed to be the expression of Paleocircuits of the mammalian brain specifically, modules of the cingulate cortex or gyrus which facilitate the care, feeding, and grooming of offspring. Paleocircuits are neural platforms for bodily expression configured before the advent of cortical circuits for speech. They consist of pre-configured pathways or networks of nerve cells in the forebrain , brainstem and spinal cord.

Other emotions like fear and anxiety long thought to be exclusively generated by the most primitive parts of the brain stem and more associated to the fight-or-flight responses of behavior, have also been associated as adaptive expressions of defensive behavior whenever a threat is encountered. Although defensive behaviors have been present in a wide variety of species, Blanchard et al. Whenever potentially dangerous stimuli is presented additional brain structures activate that previously thought hippocampus, thalamus, etc. Thus, giving the amygdala an important role on coordinating the following behavioral input based on the presented neurotransmitters that respond to threat stimuli.

These biological functions of the amygdala are not only limited to the "fear-conditioning" and "processing of aversive stimuli", but also are present on other components of the amygdala. Therefore, it can referred the amygdala as a key structure to understand the potential responses of behavior in danger like situations in human and non-human mammals. The motor centers of reptiles react to sensory cues of vision, sound, touch, chemical, gravity, and motion with pre-set body movements and programmed postures.

With the arrival of night-active mammals , smell replaced vision as the dominant sense, and a different way of responding arose from the olfactory sense, which is proposed to have developed into mammalian emotion and emotional memory. The mammalian brain invested heavily in olfaction to succeed at night as reptiles slept — one explanation for why olfactory lobes in mammalian brains are proportionally larger than in the reptiles. These odor pathways gradually formed the neural blueprint for what was later to become our limbic brain. Emotions are thought to be related to certain activities in brain areas that direct our attention, motivate our behavior, and determine the significance of what is going on around us.

MacLean [99] suggested that emotion is related to a group of structures in the center of the brain called the limbic system , which includes the hypothalamus , cingulate cortex , hippocampi , and other structures. More recent research has shown that some of these limbic structures are not as directly related to emotion as others are while some non-limbic structures have been found to be of greater emotional relevance.

There is ample evidence that the left prefrontal cortex is activated by stimuli that cause positive approach. This was demonstrated for moderately attractive visual stimuli [] and replicated and extended to include negative stimuli. Two neurobiological models of emotion in the prefrontal cortex made opposing predictions. The valence model predicted that anger, a negative emotion, would activate the right prefrontal cortex. The direction model predicted that anger, an approach emotion, would activate the left prefrontal cortex. The second model was supported. This still left open the question of whether the opposite of approach in the prefrontal cortex is better described as moving away direction model , as unmoving but with strength and resistance movement model , or as unmoving with passive yielding action tendency model.

Support for the action tendency model passivity related to right prefrontal activity comes from research on shyness [] and research on behavioral inhibition. Another neurological approach proposed by Bud Craig in distinguishes two classes of emotion: "classical" emotions such as love, anger and fear that are evoked by environmental stimuli, and " homeostatic emotions " — attention-demanding feelings evoked by body states, such as pain, hunger and fatigue, that motivate behavior withdrawal, eating or resting in these examples aimed at maintaining the body's internal milieu at its ideal state. Derek Denton calls the latter "primordial emotions" and defines them as "the subjective element of the instincts, which are the genetically programmed behavior patterns which contrive homeostasis.

They include thirst, hunger for air, hunger for food, pain and hunger for specific minerals etc. There are two constituents of a primordial emotion — the specific sensation which when severe may be imperious, and the compelling intention for gratification by a consummatory act. Emotions are seen by some researchers to be constructed emerge in social and cognitive domain alone, without directly implying biologically inherited characteristics. Joseph LeDoux differentiates between the human's defense system, which has evolved over time, and emotions such as fear and anxiety.

He has said that the amygdala may release hormones due to a trigger such as an innate reaction to seeing a snake , but "then we elaborate it through cognitive and conscious processes". Lisa Feldman Barrett highlights differences in emotions between different cultures, [] and says that emotions such as anxiety are socially constructed see theory of constructed emotion. She says that they "are not triggered; you create them. They emerge as a combination of the physical properties of your body, a flexible brain that wires itself to whatever environment it develops in, and your culture and upbringing, which provide that environment.

Many different disciplines have produced work on the emotions. Human sciences study the role of emotions in mental processes, disorders, and neural mechanisms. In psychiatry , emotions are examined as part of the discipline's study and treatment of mental disorders in humans. Nursing studies emotions as part of its approach to the provision of holistic health care to humans. Psychology examines emotions from a scientific perspective by treating them as mental processes and behavior and they explore the underlying physiological and neurological processes, e. In neuroscience sub-fields such as social neuroscience and affective neuroscience , scientists study the neural mechanisms of emotion by combining neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood.

In linguistics , the expression of emotion may change to the meaning of sounds. In education , the role of emotions in relation to learning is examined. Social sciences often examine emotion for the role that it plays in human culture and social interactions. In sociology , emotions are examined for the role they play in human society, social patterns and interactions, and culture. In anthropology , the study of humanity, scholars use ethnography to undertake contextual analyses and cross-cultural comparisons of a range of human activities. Some anthropology studies examine the role of emotions in human activities. In the field of communication studies , critical organizational scholars have examined the role of emotions in organizations, from the perspectives of managers, employees, and even customers.

A focus on emotions in organizations can be credited to Arlie Russell Hochschild 's concept of emotional labor. The University of Queensland hosts EmoNet, [] an e-mail distribution list representing a network of academics that facilitates scholarly discussion of all matters relating to the study of emotion in organizational settings. The list was established in January and has over members from across the globe. In economics , the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, emotions are analyzed in some sub-fields of microeconomics, in order to assess the role of emotions on purchase decision-making and risk perception. In criminology , a social science approach to the study of crime, scholars often draw on behavioral sciences, sociology, and psychology; emotions are examined in criminology issues such as anomie theory and studies of "toughness," aggressive behavior, and hooliganism.

In law , which underpins civil obedience, politics, economics and society, evidence about people's emotions is often raised in tort law claims for compensation and in criminal law prosecutions against alleged lawbreakers as evidence of the defendant's state of mind during trials, sentencing, and parole hearings. In political science , emotions are examined in a number of sub-fields, such as the analysis of voter decision-making. In philosophy , emotions are studied in sub-fields such as ethics , the philosophy of art for example, sensory—emotional values, and matters of taste and sentimentality , and the philosophy of music see also music and emotion.

In history , scholars examine documents and other sources to interpret and analyze past activities; speculation on the emotional state of the authors of historical documents is one of the tools of interpretation. In literature and film-making, the expression of emotion is the cornerstone of genres such as drama, melodrama, and romance. In communication studies , scholars study the role that emotion plays in the dissemination of ideas and messages.

Emotion is also studied in non-human animals in ethology , a branch of zoology which focuses on the scientific study of animal behavior. Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science, with strong ties to ecology and evolution. Ethologists often study one type of behavior for example, aggression in a number of unrelated animals. The history of emotions has become an increasingly popular topic recently, with some scholars [ who? Historians, like other social scientists, assume that emotions, feelings and their expressions are regulated in different ways by both different cultures and different historical times, and the constructivist school of history claims even that some sentiments and meta-emotions , for example schadenfreude , are learnt and not only regulated by culture.

Historians of emotion trace and analyze the changing norms and rules of feeling, while examining emotional regimes, codes, and lexicons from social, cultural, or political history perspectives. Others focus on the history of medicine , science , or psychology. What somebody can and may feel and show in a given situation, towards certain people or things, depends on social norms and rules; thus historically variable and open to change. Furthermore, research in historical trauma suggests that some traumatic emotions can be passed on from parents to offspring to second and even third generation, presented as examples of transgenerational trauma. A common way in which emotions are conceptualized in sociology is in terms of the multidimensional characteristics including cultural or emotional labels for example, anger, pride, fear, happiness , physiological changes for example, increased perspiration, changes in pulse rate , expressive facial and body movements for example, smiling, frowning, baring teeth , and appraisals of situational cues.

When people enter a situation or encounter with certain expectations for how the encounter should unfold, they will experience different emotions depending on the extent to which expectations for Self, other and situation are met or not met. People can also provide positive or negative sanctions directed at Self or other which also trigger different emotional experiences in individuals. Turner analyzed a wide range of emotion theories across different fields of research including sociology, psychology, evolutionary science, and neuroscience. Based on this analysis, he identified four emotions that all researchers consider being founded on human neurology including assertive-anger, aversion-fear, satisfaction-happiness, and disappointment-sadness.

These four categories are called primary emotions and there is some agreement amongst researchers that these primary emotions become combined to produce more elaborate and complex emotional experiences. These more elaborate emotions are called first-order elaborations in Turner's theory and they include sentiments such as pride, triumph, and awe. Emotions can also be experienced at different levels of intensity so that feelings of concern are a low-intensity variation of the primary emotion aversion-fear whereas depression is a higher intensity variant.

Attempts are frequently made to regulate emotion according to the conventions of the society and the situation based on many sometimes conflicting demands and expectations which originate from various entities. The expression of anger is in many cultures discouraged in girls and women to a greater extent than in boys and men the notion being that an angry man has a valid complaint that needs to be rectified, while an angry women is hysterical or oversensitive, and her anger is somehow invalid , while the expression of sadness or fear is discouraged in boys and men relative to girls and women attitudes implicit in phrases like "man up" or "don't be a sissy".

Some cultures encourage or discourage happiness, sadness, or jealousy, and the free expression of the emotion of disgust is considered socially unacceptable in most cultures. Some social institutions are seen as based on certain emotion, such as love in the case of contemporary institution of marriage. In advertising, such as health campaigns and political messages, emotional appeals are commonly found. Recent examples include no-smoking health campaigns and political campaigns emphasizing the fear of terrorism. Sociological attention to emotion has varied over time. He explained how the heightened state of emotional energy achieved during totemic rituals transported individuals above themselves giving them the sense that they were in the presence of a higher power, a force, that was embedded in the sacred objects that were worshipped.

These feelings of exaltation, he argued, ultimately lead people to believe that there were forces that governed sacred objects. In the s, sociologists focused on different aspects of specific emotions and how these emotions were socially relevant. For Cooley , [] pride and shame were the most important emotions that drive people to take various social actions. During every encounter, he proposed that we monitor ourselves through the "looking glass" that the gestures and reactions of others provide. Depending on these reactions, we either experience pride or shame and this results in particular paths of action.

Retzinger [] conducted studies of married couples who experienced cycles of rage and shame. Drawing predominantly on Goffman and Cooley's work, Scheff [] developed a micro sociological theory of the social bond. The formation or disruption of social bonds is dependent on the emotions that people experience during interactions. Based on interaction ritual theory, we experience different levels or intensities of emotional energy during face-to-face interactions.

Emotional energy is considered to be a feeling of confidence to take action and a boldness that one experiences when they are charged up from the collective effervescence generated during group gatherings that reach high levels of intensity. These studies show that learning subjects like science can be understood in terms of classroom interaction rituals that generate emotional energy and collective states of emotional arousal like emotional climate.

Apart from interaction ritual traditions of the sociology of emotion, other approaches have been classed into one of six other categories: []. This list provides a general overview of different traditions in the sociology of emotion that sometimes conceptualise emotion in different ways and at other times in complementary ways. Many of these different approaches were synthesized by Turner in his sociological theory of human emotions in an attempt to produce one comprehensive sociological account that draws on developments from many of the above traditions. Emotion regulation refers to the cognitive and behavioral strategies people use to influence their own emotional experience.

Cognitively oriented schools approach them via their cognitive components, such as rational emotive behavior therapy. Yet others approach emotions via symbolic movement and facial expression components like in contemporary Gestalt therapy. Research on emotions reveals the strong presence of cross-cultural differences in emotional reactions and that emotional reactions are likely to be culture-specific. This implies the need to comprehend the current emotional state, mental disposition or other behavioral motivation of a target audience located in a different culture, basically founded on its national, political, social, economic, and psychological peculiarities but also subject to the influence of circumstances and events.

In the s, research in computer science, engineering, psychology and neuroscience has been aimed at developing devices that recognize human affect display and model emotions. It is an interdisciplinary field spanning computer sciences , psychology , and cognitive science. The data gathered is analogous to the cues humans use to perceive emotions in others. Another area within affective computing is the design of computational devices proposed to exhibit either innate emotional capabilities or that are capable of convincingly simulating emotions.

Emotional speech processing recognizes the user's emotional state by analyzing speech patterns. The detection and processing of facial expression or body gestures is achieved through detectors and sensors. Emotion affects the way autobiographical memories are encoded and retrieved. Emotional memories are reactivated more, they are remembered better and have more attention devoted to them. In the late 19th century, the most influential theorists were William James — and Carl Lange — Lange was a Danish physician and psychologist. Working independently, they developed the James—Lange theory , a hypothesis on the origin and nature of emotions. The theory states that within human beings, as a response to experiences in the world, the autonomic nervous system creates physiological events such as muscular tension, a rise in heart rate, perspiration, and dryness of the mouth.

Emotions, then, are feelings which come about as a result of these physiological changes, rather than being their cause. Silvan Tomkins — developed the affect theory and script theory. The affect theory introduced the concept of basic emotions, and was based on the idea that the dominance of the emotion, which he called the affected system, was the motivating force in human life. Some of the most influential deceased theorists on emotion from the 20th century include Magda B. Arnold — , an American psychologist who developed the appraisal theory of emotions; [] Richard Lazarus — , an American psychologist who specialized in emotion and stress, especially in relation to cognition; Herbert A.

Simon — , who included emotions into decision making and artificial intelligence; Robert Plutchik — , an American psychologist who developed a psychoevolutionary theory of emotion; [] Robert Zajonc — a Polish—American social psychologist who specialized in social and cognitive processes such as social facilitation; Robert C. Solomon — , an American philosopher who contributed to the theories on the philosophy of emotions with books such as What Is An Emotion? Influential theorists who are still active include the following psychologists, neurologists, philosophers, and sociologists:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Emotions. Conscious subjective experience of humans. For other uses, see Emotion disambiguation. For other uses, see Emotional disambiguation.

Main article: Emotion classification. See also: Functional accounts of emotion. Main articles: Evolution of emotion and Evolutionary psychology. Main article: James—Lange theory. Main article: Cannon—Bard theory. Main article: Two-factor theory of emotion. Main article: History of emotions. Main article: Sociology of emotions. Main article: Affective computing. Affect measures Affective forecasting Emotion and memory Emotion Review Emotional intelligence Emotional isolation Emotions in virtual communication Facial feedback hypothesis Fuzzy-trace theory Group emotion Moral emotions Social sharing of emotions Two-factor theory of emotion.

Affective neuroscience : the foundations of human and animal emotions [Reprint] ed. Oxford [u. ISBN Our emotional feelings reflect our ability to subjectively experience certain states of the nervous system. Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews. PMID S2CID The Nature of emotion : fundamental questions. New York: Oxford University Press. Emotional processing, but not emotions, can occur unconsciously. Psychology Second Edition. New York: Worth Publishers. February Journal of Personality. ISSN Annual Review of Psychology. Psychology European ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

PMC McBurney Evolutionary Psychology. Prentice Hall. ISBN , Chapter 6, pp. The psychological construction of emotion. Guilford Press. Annual Review of Sociology. From passions to emotions: the creation of a secular psychological category. Cambridge University Press. The Book of Human Emotions. Little, Brown, and Company. Psychological Bulletin. Emotions across languages and cultures: diversity and universals. What is emotion? Yale University Press. The Life of David Hume.

Oxford University Press. A treatise of human nature. Courier Corporation. Lexico Dictionaries English. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Facts of Life: ten issues of contentment. Outskirts Press. Facts of Life: Ten Issues of Contentment. Emotions and Moods. Organizational Behavior, — Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

And how can they be measured? Social Science Information. Center for Nonverbal Studies. Archived from the original on 23 May Retrieved 7 May CiteSeerX Archived from the original PDF on 15 October Retrieved 25 October Retrieved 15 September Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior , 2, — In Miller, Harold L. The Sage encyclopedia of theory in psychology. Some aspects of Ekman's approach to basic emotions are commonly misunderstood. Three misinterpretations are especially common.

The first and most widespread is that Ekman posits exactly six basic emotions. Although his original facial-expression research examined six emotions, Ekman has often written that evidence may eventually be found for several more and has suggested as many as 15 likely candidates. Emotion Review. Understanding emotions. OCLC Emotions in the practice of psychotherapy: clinical implications of affect theories. American Scientist. The Measurement of Meaning. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. Psychology Ed. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Psychological Review.

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Currently the predominant opinion is that somatovisceral and central nervous responses associated with an emotion serve to prepare situationally adaptive behavioral responses. Physiology of Behavior. Retrieved 8 June Nature Reviews Neuroscience. Emotion 11th ed. Physiological Reviews. The American Journal of Psychology. Worth Publishers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mind and Emotion. Malabar: R. Krieger Publishing Company. Mind and Body: Psychology of Emotion and Stress. New York: W. Acronyms , however, are acceptable. Do not use contractions in formal writing - use full forms i. Numbers are written as words "one", "two" So you would be correct to write "69 patients" but "four groups".

Atkinson, R. Hilgard's introduction to psychology. Harcourt Brace. Barraclough, J. Life events and breast cancer prognosis. British Medical Journal, , — Bartrop, R. Depressed lymphocyte function after bereavement. The Lancet, , — Clark, W. In defense of self: How the immune system really works. Oxford Scholarship Online. Edelman, S. Mind and cancer: Is there a relationship? Australian Psychologist, 32 , 79— Goleman, D. Emotional intelligence.

Bantam Books. Goodkin, K. Stress and hopelessness in the promotion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia to invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 30 , 67— Greer, S. Psychological response to breast cancer: Effect on outcome. Home, R. Cancer proof your body. Griffin Paperbacks. Kune, G. The psyche and cancer: The first Slezak cancer symposium. University of Melbourne. Ljungman, C. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, 8 12 , — Mayer, J. What is emotional intelligence? Sluyter Eds. Basic Books. McGee, R. Does stress cause cancer? There's no good evidence of a relation between stressful events and cancer.

Ramirez, A. Stress and relapse of breast cancer. Sarafino, E. Health psychology: Biosocial interactions 2nd ed. Sdorow, L. Psychology 3rd ed. Brown and Benchmark. Sklar, L. Stress and coping factors influence tumour growth. Science , , — Ward, D. One in 10 - Women living with breast cancer. Allen and Unwin. Home Courses Library Donate. Previous menu Toggle navigation. Why is academic integrity important? What is academic integrity? How can I study with integrity? Case history 1. Case history 2. Mental state examination 2.

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This should be a brief overview of the main points you intend to raise in the essay. Legend: Good Problem Suggestion Question. Structuring your paragraphs Just like your essay and your introduction, each paragraph in the body has its own internal structure. Tip Vary your reporting verbs i. Activity The following paragraph is out of order. Rearrange the sentences so that it is appropriately structured. Tip: look for signposting to help identify the order of the supporting sentences. Note: This activity is easier to complete in full screen mode. Writing a conclusion Your conclusion should remind your reader of your overall contention and demonstrate how the points you have raised in the body of your essay support your claim.

Remember The conclusion should never introduce new information. Academic language for pharmacy While sharing some characteristics with other forms of academic language, the language used in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science has its own conventions. Direct Your academic writing needs to be direct. For example, instead of: The white mouse, called Hansel, followed the path left by the grey mouse, Gretel, with calm, cautious movements, like a hunter stalking its prey. Consider: Why has it happened? Try to explain why a specific result occurred, especially if it is different to the results of similar experiments or does not react as you expected.

Activity Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay following paragraph is out of Football Coach Judgement Essay. Nor is the emotion an entity that causes Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay components. These studies show that learning subjects like Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay can be Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay in terms Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay classroom interaction rituals that generate emotional energy and collective states of emotional arousal like Emotional Intelligence Theories Essay climate.