✯✯✯ Erythrocytes Synthesis Lab Report

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Erythrocytes Synthesis Lab Report

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Haematology - Red Blood Cell Life Cycle

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Omundu Yekeyeke. Samuel Velpula. Yusuf Saidu Umar. Simran Nadaf. Meenakshy Sasikumar. Show More. Views Total views. Actions Shares. No notes for slide. Sickle cell anemia 1. Aziza Mahrous 2. Earnest E. Report of blood test on Walter Clement Noel dated 31 December Georges, the capital city, until he died at the age of 32 from the acute chest syndrome. R Mason names the disease Sickle Cell Anemia. Hemoglobin A Hemoglobin S Sickle cells break apart easily and die, leaving you without enough red blood cells. Red blood cells usually live for about days before they need to be replaced. But sickle cells usually die in 10 to 20 days, leaving a shortage of red blood cells anemia. Without enough red blood cells, your body can't get the oxygen it needs to feel energized, causing fatigue.

Periodic episodes of pain, called crises, are a major symptom of sickle cell anemia. Pain can also occur in your bones. Some people have only a few pain episodes. Others have a dozen or more crises a year. If a crisis is severe enough, you might need to be hospitalized. Some adolescents and adults with sickle cell anemia also have chronic pain, which can result from bone and joint damage, ulcers and other causes. The swelling is caused by sickle-shaped red blood cells blocking blood flow to the hands and feet. Sickle cells can damage an organ that fights infection spleen , leaving you more vulnerable to infections. Doctors commonly give infants and children with sickle cell anemia vaccinations and antibiotics to prevent potentially life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia.

Red blood cells provide your body with the oxygen and nutrients you need for growth. A shortage of healthy red blood cells can slow growth in infants and children and delay puberty in teenagers. Tiny blood vessels that supply your eyes may become plugged with sickle cells. This can damage the retina — the portion of the eye that processes visual images, leading to vision problems.

A stroke can occur if sickle cells block blood flow to an area of your brain. Signs of stroke include seizures, weakness or numbness of your arms and legs, sudden speech difficulties, and loss of consciousness. If your baby or child has any of these signs and symptoms, seek medical treatment immediately. A stroke can be fatal. This life-threatening complication causes chest pain, fever and difficulty breathing.

Acute chest syndrome can be caused by a lung infection or by sickle cells blocking blood vessels in your lungs. It might require emergency medical treatment with antibiotics and other treatments. People with sickle cell anemia can develop high blood pressure in their lungs pulmonary hypertension. This complication usually affects adults rather than children.

Shortness of breath and fatigue are common symptoms of this condition, which can be fatal. Sickle cells that block blood flow through blood vessels immediately deprive the affected organ of blood and oxygen. In sickle cell anemia, blood is also chronically low on oxygen. Chronic deprivation of oxygen-rich blood can damage nerves and organs in your body, including your kidneys, liver and spleen. Organ damage can be fatal. Sickle cells can block tiny blood vessels that supply your eyes. Over time, this can damage the portion of the eye that processes visual images retina and lead to blindness.

Sickle cell anemia can cause open sores, called ulcers, on your legs. The breakdown of red blood cells produces a substance called bilirubin. A high level of bilirubin in your body can lead to gallstones. In the United States, this blood test is part of routine newborn screening done at the hospital. But older children and adults can be tested, too. In young children and babies, the blood sample is usually collected from a finger or heel.

Amniocentesis, done usually at weeks of pregnancy, tests a sample of the amniotic fluid in the womb for genetic defects the fluid and the fetus have the same DNA. Under local anesthesia, a thin needle is inserted through the woman's abdomen and into the womb. About 20 milliliters of fluid roughly 4 teaspoons is withdrawn and sent to a lab for evaluation. The authors declared no conflicts of interest. No funding was received for this study. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Oman Med J v. Oman Med J. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. E-mail: ym. Received Dec 27; Accepted Apr This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Pre-analytical quality in clinical chemistry testing is as important as analytical and post-analytical quality. Keywords: Hemolysis, Detection, Rejection, Management. In vitro hemolysis In vitro hemolysis is a result of pre-analytical causes associated with sample collection, jarring transportation methods, extreme temperature, sample handling, delayed processing, and prolonged storage. Challenges in identifying of in vivo and in vitro hemolysis An emerging challenge for clinical laboratories is to differentiate between in vivo and in vitro hemolysis.

Reject or not to reject? Conclusion Hemolytic specimen is still a major concern to laboratory specialists worldwide. Disclosure The authors declared no conflicts of interest. References 1. Haemolysis: an overview of the leading cause of unsuitable specimens in clinical laboratories. Clin Chem Lab Med ; 46 6 Detection of haemolysis and reporting of potassium results in samples from neonates. Ann Clin Biochem May; 46 Pt 3 Influence of hemolysis on routine clinical chemistry testing. Clin Chem Lab Med ; 44 3 Plebani M. Errors in clinical laboratories or errors in laboratory medicine? Clin Chem Lab Med ; 44 6 Goyal T, Schmotzer CL.

Validation of hemolysis index thresholds optimizes detection of clinically significant hemolysis. Am J Clin Pathol Apr; 4 Lippi G, Guidi GC. Risk management in the preanalytical phase of laboratory testing. Clin Chem Lab Med ; 45 6 Chemistry specimen acceptability: a College of American Pathologists Q-Probes study of laboratories. Arch Pathol Lab Med Jan; 1 Errors in laboratory medicine. Clin Chem May; 48 5 Carraro P, Plebani M.

Errors in a stat laboratory: types and frequencies 10 years later. Jul; 53 7 Hashimoto C. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 16 3 Hemolyzed specimens: a major challenge for emergency departments and clinical laboratories. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci May-Jun; 48 3 Guder WG. Haemolysis as an influence and interference factor in clinical chemistry. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem Feb; 24 2 Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: insights from recent advances in molecular biology. Transfus Med Rev Oct; 15 4 Clinical features and outcomes of autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a retrospective analysis of 32 cases. Korean J Hematol Jun; 46 2 Methemoglobinemia in an elderly patient with glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: a case report.

Oman Med J Mar; 29 2 Hemolyzed specimens: a reason for rejection or a clinical challenge? Feb; 46 2 The clinical sequelae of intravascular hemolysis and extracellular plasma hemoglobin: a novel mechanism of human disease. JAMA Apr; 13 A comprehensive scheme for the systematic investigation of hemolytic anemia. Ann Clin Lab Sci Sep-Oct; 24 5 Neonatal intensive care unit quality initiative: identifying preanalytical variables contributing to specimen hemolysis and measuring the impact of evidence-based practice interventions. Jul; 1 Bush V, Mangan L. The hemolyzed specimen: causes, effects, and reduction. Determination of hemolysis thresholds by the use of data loggers in pneumatic tube systems.

Oct; 57 10 Hemolysis detection and management of hemolyzed specimens. Biochem Med Zagreb ; 20 2 Studies on in vitro hemolysis and utility of corrective formulas for reporting results on hemolyzed specimens. Biochem Med Zagreb ; 21 3 The influence of bilirubin, haemolysis and turbidity on 20 analytical tests performed on automatic analysers. Results of an interlaboratory study. Jan; 33 1 Jay DW, Provasek D. Characterization and mathematical correction of hemolysis interference in selected Hitachi assays.

Sep; 39 9 Sonntag O. Haemolysis as an interference factor in clinical chemistry. Effects of hemolysis interferences on routine biochemistry parameters. Biochem Med Zagreb ; 21 1 In vitro and in vivo haemolysis and potassium measurement. BMJ Apr; Mather A, Mackie NR. Effects of hemolysis on serum electrolyte values. Jun; 6 3 Spurious electrolyte disorders: a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Am J Nephrol ; 38 1 Interference of hemolysis in the estimation of plasma aspartate aminotransferase, potassium and phosphate. Journal of Investigational Biochemistry.

Hemoglobin interference from in vivo hemolysis. Sep; 31 9 Hemolysis associated with pneumatic tube system transport for blood samples. Pak J Med Sci Jan; 30 1 Withold W. Monitoring of bone turnover biological, preanalytical and technical criteria in the assessment of biochemical markers. Oct; 34 10 Identification of the haemoglobin scavenger receptor. Nature Jan; Influence of clinical factors on the haemolysis marker haptoglobin.

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