✎✎✎ Criminal Justice Field Observation Report
For instance, a Criminal Justice Field Observation Report Poll, if conducted as a nationwide Kenneth Pullmans Diabetes Protocol Program Criminal Justice Field Observation Report, should be Criminal Justice Field Observation Report to provide an accurate Criminal Justice Field Observation Report of public opinion whether it contacts Criminal Justice Field Observation Report, or 10, people. These are just a handful of jobs within the criminal justice field. Criminal Justice Field Observation Report type of data do surveys gather? Including a Authentic Mexican Food disclaimer in each report might save Anne Bradstreet: Poem Analysis lots of trouble, time, and money Criminal Justice Field Observation Report or later. A basic text of particular interest to those unfamiliar with the investigative process. Readers in the Criminal Justice Field Observation Report and s identified with the citizens of Muncie, Indiana, but they were equally fascinated by the sociological methods and the use of scientific data Criminal Justice Field Observation Report define ordinary people in the United States. Imagine Criminal Justice Field Observation Report are Criminal Justice Field Observation Report to do field research in a Criminal Justice Field Observation Report place for a set Criminal Justice Field Observation Report.
Those groups are often of great interest to sociologists. Some of them have taken fandom to the extreme, making Parrothead culture a lifestyle. In , Parrotheads and their subculture caught the attention of researchers John Mihelich and John Papineau. The two saw the way Jimmy Buffett fans collectively created an artificial reality. They wanted to know how fan groups shape culture. What Mihelich and Papineau found was that Parrotheads, for the most part, do not seek to challenge or even change society, as many sub-groups do.
In fact, most Parrotheads live successfully within society, holding upper-level jobs in the corporate world. What they seek is escape from the stress of daily life. At Jimmy Buffett concerts, Parrotheads engage in a form of role play. They paint their faces and dress for the tropics in grass skirts, Hawaiian leis, and Parrot hats. In that sense, Parrothead culture is less about individualism and more about conformity. Being a Parrothead means sharing a specific identity.
Many Parrothead fan groups have performed good works in the name of Jimmy Buffett culture, donating to charities and volunteering their services. However, the authors suggest that what really drives Parrothead culture is commercialism. Buffett made a lucrative career for himself by partnering with product companies and marketing Margaritaville in the form of T-shirts, restaurants, casinos, and an expansive line of products. Some fans accuse Buffett of selling out, while others admire his financial success. Mihelich and Papineau gathered much of their information online. In conducting studies about pockets of culture, most sociologists seek to discover a universal appeal.
Here, we will look at three types of field research: participant observation, ethnography, and the case study. Every day for two weeks, he pretended to work there. His main purpose was simply to see whether anyone would notice him or challenge his presence. No one did. The receptionist greeted him. The employees smiled and said good morning. Rothman was accepted as part of the team. He even went so far as to claim a desk, inform the receptionist of his whereabouts, and attend a meeting.
Later, he was discredited for allegedly fabricating some details of the story and The New Yorker issued an apology. This method lets researchers experience a specific aspect of social life. A researcher might go to great lengths to get a firsthand look into a trend, institution, or behavior. Researchers temporarily put themselves into roles and record their observations. A researcher might work as a waitress in a diner, live as a homeless person for several weeks, or ride along with police officers as they patrol their regular beat. Often, these researchers try to blend in seamlessly with the population they study, and they may not disclose their true identity or purpose if they feel it would compromise the results of their research. Field researchers simply want to observe and learn.
In such a setting, the researcher will be alert and open minded to whatever happens, recording all observations accurately. Soon, as patterns emerge, questions will become more specific, observations will lead to hypotheses, and hypotheses will guide the researcher in shaping data into results. In a study of small towns in the United States conducted by sociological researchers John S.
Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, the team altered their purpose as they gathered data. They initially planned to focus their study on the role of religion in U. As they gathered observations, they realized that the effect of industrialization and urbanization was the more relevant topic of this social group. The Lynds did not change their methods, but they revised their purpose. The Lynds were upfront about their mission. The townspeople of Muncie, Indiana, knew why the researchers were in their midst. But some sociologists prefer not to alert people to their presence. Becoming an inside member of a group, organization, or subculture takes time and effort. Researchers must pretend to be something they are not. The process could involve role playing, making contacts, networking, or applying for a job.
Once inside a group, some researchers spend months or even years pretending to be one of the people they are observing. However, as observers, they cannot get too involved. They must keep their purpose in mind and apply the sociological perspective. That way, they illuminate social patterns that are often unrecognized. Because information gathered during participant observation is mostly qualitative, rather than quantitative, the end results are often descriptive or interpretive.
The researcher might present findings in an article or book and describe what he or she witnessed and experienced. This type of research is what journalist Barbara Ehrenreich conducted for her book Nickel and Dimed. One day over lunch with her editor, as the story goes, Ehrenreich mentioned an idea. How can people exist on minimum-wage work? How do low-income workers get by? Someone should do a study. For several months, she left her comfortable home and lived and worked among people who lacked, for the most part, higher education and marketable job skills. Undercover, she applied for and worked minimum wage jobs as a waitress, a cleaning woman, a nursing home aide, and a retail chain employee.
During her participant observation, she used only her income from those jobs to pay for food, clothing, transportation, and shelter. She also experienced and observed attitudes many middle and upper-class people never think about. She witnessed firsthand the treatment of working class employees. She saw the extreme measures people take to make ends meet and to survive. She described fellow employees who held two or three jobs, worked seven days a week, lived in cars, could not pay to treat chronic health conditions, got randomly fired, submitted to drug tests, and moved in and out of homeless shelters. She brought aspects of that life to light, describing difficult working conditions and the poor treatment that low-wage workers suffer.
Nickel and Dimed: On Not Getting By in America , the book she wrote upon her return to her real life as a well-paid writer, has been widely read and used in many college classrooms. Ethnography is the extended observation of the social perspective and cultural values of an entire social setting. Ethnographies involve objective observation of an entire community. The heart of an ethnographic study focuses on how subjects view their own social standing and how they understand themselves in relation to a community. An ethnographic study might observe, for example, a small U.
These places all have borders. People live, work, study, or vacation within those borders. People are there for a certain reason and therefore behave in certain ways and respect certain cultural norms. An ethnographer would commit to spending a determined amount of time studying every aspect of the chosen place, taking in as much as possible. A sociologist studying a tribe in the Amazon might watch the way villagers go about their daily lives and then write a paper about it. To observe a spiritual retreat center, an ethnographer might sign up for a retreat and attend as a guest for an extended stay, observe and record data, and collate the material into results. Institutional ethnography is an extension of basic ethnographic research principles that focuses intentionally on everyday concrete social relationships.
Developed by Canadian sociologist Dorothy E. Historically, social science research tended to objectify women and ignore their experiences except as viewed from the male perspective. Modern feminists note that describing women, and other marginalized groups, as subordinates helps those in authority maintain their own dominant positions Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, n. In , a young married couple named Robert and Helen Lynd undertook an unprecedented ethnography: to apply sociological methods to the study of one U.
Choosing Muncie, Indiana population about 30, , as their subject, they moved to the small town and lived there for eighteen months. Ethnographers had been examining other cultures for decades—groups considered minority or outsider—like gangs, immigrants, and the poor. But no one had studied the so-called average American. Recording interviews and using surveys to gather data, the Lynds did not sugarcoat or idealize U. They objectively stated what they observed. Researching existing sources, they compared Muncie in to the Muncie they observed in Most Muncie adults, they found, had grown up on farms but now lived in homes inside the city. From that discovery, the Lynds focused their study on the impact of industrialization and urbanization.
They observed that Muncie was divided into business class and working class groups. They defined business class as dealing with abstract concepts and symbols, while working class people used tools to create concrete objects. The two classes led different lives with different goals and hopes. However, the Lynds observed, mass production offered both classes the same amenities. Like wealthy families, the working class was now able to own radios, cars, washing machines, telephones, vacuum cleaners, and refrigerators. This was an emerging material new reality of the s. When the study was completed, the Lynds encountered a big problem. The Rockefeller Foundation, which had commissioned the book, claimed it was useless and refused to publish it.
The Lynds asked if they could seek a publisher themselves. Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture was not only published in but also became an instant bestseller, a status unheard of for a sociological study. The book sold out six printings in its first year of publication, and has never gone out of print PBS. Nothing like it had ever been done before. Middletown was reviewed on the front page of the New York Times. Readers in the s and s identified with the citizens of Muncie, Indiana, but they were equally fascinated by the sociological methods and the use of scientific data to define ordinary people in the United States. The book was proof that social data was important—and interesting—to the U. Sometimes a researcher wants to study one specific person or event.
A case study is an in-depth analysis of a single event, situation, or individual. To conduct a case study, a researcher examines existing sources like documents and archival records, conducts interviews, engages in direct observation and even participant observation, if possible. Researchers might use this method to study a single case of, for example, a foster child, drug lord, cancer patient, criminal, or rape victim. However, a major criticism of the case study as a method is that a developed study of a single case, while offering depth on a topic, does not provide enough evidence to form a generalized conclusion.
In other words, it is difficult to make universal claims based on just one person, since one person does not verify a pattern. This is why most sociologists do not use case studies as a primary research method. However, case studies are useful when the single case is unique. In these instances, a single case study can add tremendous knowledge to a certain discipline. These children mimic the behaviors and movements of animals, and often invent their own language. As you may imagine, a feral child is a subject of great interest to researchers. And since there are very few feral children, the case study is the most appropriate method for researchers to use in studying the subject. At age three, a Ukranian girl named Oxana Malaya suffered severe parental neglect.
She lived in a shed with dogs, and she ate raw meat and scraps. Five years later, a neighbor called authorities and reported seeing a girl who ran on all fours, barking. Officials brought Oxana into society, where she was cared for and taught some human behaviors, but she never became fully socialized. She has been designated as unable to support herself and now lives in a mental institution Grice Case studies like this offer a way for sociologists to collect data that may not be collectable by any other method. If this, then that. When you test the theory, your results either prove or disprove your hypothesis.
One way researchers test social theories is by conducting an experiment , meaning they investigate relationships to test a hypothesis—a scientific approach. There are two main types of experiments: lab-based experiments and natural or field experiments. In a lab setting, the research can be controlled so that perhaps more data can be recorded in a certain amount of time. In a natural or field-based experiment, the generation of data cannot be controlled but the information might be considered more accurate since it was collected without interference or intervention by the researcher. As a research method, either type of sociological experiment is useful for testing if-then statements: if a particular thing happens, then another particular thing will result.
To set up a lab-based experiment, sociologists create artificial situations that allow them to manipulate variables. Classically, the sociologist selects a set of people with similar characteristics, such as age, class, race, or education. Those people are divided into two groups. One is the experimental group and the other is the control group. The experimental group is exposed to the independent variable s and the control group is not.
To test the benefits of tutoring, for example, the sociologist might expose the experimental group of students to tutoring but not the control group. Then both groups would be tested for differences in performance to see if tutoring had an effect on the experimental group of students. As you can imagine, in a case like this, the researcher would not want to jeopardize the accomplishments of either group of students, so the setting would be somewhat artificial. The test would not be for a grade reflected on their permanent record, for example.
A real-life example will help illustrate the experiment process. In , Frances Heussenstamm, a sociology professor at California State University at Los Angeles, had a theory about police prejudice. To test her theory she conducted an experiment. She chose fifteen students from three ethnic backgrounds: black, white, and Hispanic. Those were her independent variables—students, good driving records, same commute route.
Next, she placed a Black Panther bumper sticker on each car. That sticker, a representation of a social value, was the independent variable. In the s, the Black Panthers were a revolutionary group actively fighting racism. Heussenstamm asked the students to follow their normal driving patterns. She wanted to see whether seeming support of the Black Panthers would change how these good drivers were treated by the police patrolling the highways. The first arrest, for an incorrect lane change, was made two hours after the experiment began. One participant was pulled over three times in three days. He quit the study. After seventeen days, the fifteen drivers had collected a total of thirty-three traffic citations.
The experiment was halted. The funding to pay traffic fines had run out, and so had the enthusiasm of the participants Heussenstamm While sociologists often engage in original research studies, they also contribute knowledge to the discipline through secondary data analysis. Sociologists might study works written by historians, economists, teachers, or early sociologists. They might search through periodicals, newspapers, or magazines from any period in history.
Using available information not only saves time and money but can also add depth to a study. To study how women were encouraged to act and behave in the s, for example, a researcher might watch movies, televisions shows, and situation comedies from that period. Or to research changes in behavior and attitudes due to the emergence of television in the late s and early s, a sociologist would rely on new interpretations of secondary data. Decades from now, researchers will most likely conduct similar studies on the advent of mobile phones, the Internet, or Facebook. Social scientists also learn by analyzing the research of a variety of agencies. Governmental departments and global groups, like the U. Bureau of Labor Statistics or the World Health Organization, publish studies with findings that are useful to sociologists.
A public statistic like the foreclosure rate might be useful for studying the effects of the recession; a racial demographic profile might be compared with data on education funding to examine the resources accessible by different groups. On the left side of the page will be the write up of your field notes, and the larger-than-normal margin on the right side will allow room for you to later introduce your comments and interpretation of the observed events.
Your typed summary not to exceed two pages should include the following identifying information: Type of setting. Date and time of your observations. Why you chose the setting. Description of the setting. Your observations of the interactions that took place. Thomas, Ph. Unobtrusive Observation in Qualitative Research You are collecting data for a qualitative research study examining interaction patterns of humans at OPEN 12 step groups e. Your task is to make a single continuous observation at an open 12 step group meeting.
Record your observations using the guidelines below. Also, see Engel and Schutt chapters 10 and 11 for further guidance. Field notes need to include the following elements. The time you entered and exited the field ; the date of the field observation ; location of the field observation ; and a brief descriptive topic label that captures the essence of the field session. A Description of the setting. This includes a description of the physical space including the furniture, decor, lighting, smells, and anything else that catches your attention. Also pay attention to the relationship of the setting to the community in which it is located and the pace or atmosphere of the place. First impressions are powerful and often convey what an outsider would have to say about the organization and its physical structure.
A Description of the people in the setting. Who is in attendance? How many attended excluding yourself? What types of people? How many females? How many people of color? What is the range of ages of the attendees? Comment on the socio-economic status of the participants. Is the group predominantly middle class? Working class? How would you characterize the personality of the group e. Include a list of people and their roles make your best guess , short demographic and descriptive portraits of each person, and descriptions of their relationship to each other.
Each time a person enters the site, notes should include a short description of the newcomer. A Short description of the events of the day. This should include what your day was like previous to the observation and how you were feeling in general prior to entering the field. It should include a general overview of the pattern of the visit. This would include observation of your own behavior and thoughts such as where you located yourself during the observation , what the reaction of others were to you, how your dress compared to the observed, what your reactions were during the observation and how this varied over the time of the observation.
This recording provides a picture of the rhythm of the site. A Description of interaction among people in the setting a. Did you notice a hierarchy in terms of status? Who appears to have the leadership role? What do you believe is the nature of the hierarchy, e. Did you observe that some individuals talk more of the time than others this can be an indication of status? Roughly, how much did each member talk? Did the group members provide their full attention to whoever was speaking? Did anyone discuss their current doctor-prescribed medication?
If so, what was the group? Did they equate the taking of doctor-prescribed medication with the use of alcohol and other drugs? How would you characterize the level of religiosity of the meeting? Low, medium or high and what is your rationale for this characterization? A low level of religiosity means that there is no mention of religion e. A Medium level of religiosity means that there is at least one prayer recited during the course of the meeting iii.
A high level of religiosity means that there is more than one prayer recited during the course of the meeting. Count the number of times there was a reference to religion. Was relapse discussed during the course of the meeting? If so, how frequently? What else did you learn about the individuals in your setting? Your overall impressions of the day and of the setting. If you were to make multiple observations , your impression can change over time and are recorded to gauge how understanding of the site evolves.
These may include description of the neighborhood and discussion of changes in the neighborhood in which the site is located, personnel or policy changes and so forth. For example, research in a church social service program should record events in the church that impact on the site. The number of people around a housing project or at a church during a particular setting should also be recorded in order to understand the frame of the micro setting.
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