✍️✍️✍️ How To Become An Obstetrician
Most health care providers recommend that How To Become An Obstetrician drugs be avoided during pregnancy representative democracy examples those essential to the control of disease in the mother. As a How To Become An Obstetrician surgeon you will probably get much How To Become An Obstetrician night sleep hours as compared to How To Become An Obstetrician Obstetrician. Chorionic villus sampling may be done early in pregnancy if the family How To Become An Obstetrician indicates potential for How To Become An Obstetrician diseases. Now, Shivery helps deliver babies, inside and outside the operating room. An instance of being pregnant: Her second pregnancy was easy. Pregnancy in How To Become An Obstetrician Although pregnancy among teenagers is decreasing in the U.
How to Become an Obstetrician/Gynecologist
Constipation may develop as a result of food passing more slowly through the intestine. Hemorrhoids and heartburn are fairly common during late pregnancy. Gums may become more sensitive and bleed more easily; eyes may dry out, making contact lenses feel painful. Pica a craving to eat substances other than food may occur. Swollen ankles and varicose veins may be a problem in the second half of pregnancy, and chloasma may appear on the face. Chloasma, also known as the "mask of pregnancy" or melasma, is caused by hormonal changes that result in blotches of pale brown skin appearing on the forehead, cheeks, and nose. These blotches may merge into one dark mask. It usually fades gradually after pregnancy, but it may become permanent or recur with subsequent pregnancies.
Some women also find that the line running from the top to the bottom of their abdomen darkens. This is called the linea nigra. While the above symptoms are all considered to be normal, there are some symptoms that could be a sign of a more dangerous underlying problem. A pregnant woman with any of the following signs should contact her doctor immediately:. Many women first discover they are pregnant after a positive home pregnancy test. Pregnancy urine tests check for the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin hCG , which is produced by a placenta.
The newest home tests can detect pregnancy on the day of the missed menstrual period. If the result is negative and there is no menstrual period within another week, the pregnancy test should be repeated. While home pregnancy tests are very accurate, they are less accurate than a pregnancy test conducted at a lab. For this reason, women may want to consider having a second pregnancy test conducted at their doctor's office to be sure of the accuracy of the result. Blood tests to determine pregnancy are usually used only when a very early diagnosis of pregnancy is needed. This more expensive test, which also looks for hCG, can produce a result within nine to 12 days after conception.
Two tests are recommended for all pregnant women: alpha-fetoprotein AFP and the triple marker test. Other tests are recommended for women at higher risk for having a child with a birth defect. This would include women over age 35, who had another child or a close relative with a birth defect, or who have been exposed to certain drugs or high levels of radiation. Women with any of these risk factors may want to consider amniocentesis , chorionic villus sampling CVS or ultrasound. There are a range of other prenatal tests that are routinely performed, including:. PAP test gestational diabetes screening test at weeks tests for sexually transmitted diseases urinalysis blood tests for anemia or blood type screening for immunity to various diseases, such as German measles.
Prenatal care is vitally important for the health of the unborn baby. A pregnant woman should be sure to eat a balanced, nutritious diet of frequent, small meals. Women should begin taking mcg of folic acid several months before becoming pregnant, as folic acid has been shown to reduce the risk of spinal cord defects, such as spina bifida. No medication not even a nonprescription drug should be taken except under medical supervision, since it could pass from the mother through the placenta to the developing baby. Some drugs, called teratogens, have been proven harmful to a fetus, but no drug should be considered completely safe especially during early pregnancy. Drugs taken during the first three months of a pregnancy may interfere with the normal formation of the baby's organs, leading to birth defects.
Drugs taken later on in pregnancy may slow the baby's growth rate, or they may damage specific fetal tissue such as the developing teeth , or cause preterm birth. To have the best chance of having a healthy baby, a pregnant woman should avoid:. Women should begin following a healthy diet even before they become pregnant. This means cutting back on high-calorie, high-fat, high-sugar snacks, and increasing the amount of fruits, vegetables and whole grains in her diet. Once she becomes pregnant, she should make sure to get at least six to 11 servings of breads and other whole grains, three to five servings of vegetables, two to four servings of fruits, four to six servings of milk and milk products, three to four servings of meat and protein foods, and six to eight glasses of water.
She should limit caffeine to no more than one soft drink or cup of coffee per day. Pregnancy is a natural condition that usually causes little discomfort provided the woman takes care of herself and gets adequate prenatal care. Childbirth education classes for the woman and her partner help prepare the couple for labor and delivery. Alpha-fetoprotein — A substance produced by a fetus' liver that can be found in the amniotic fluid and in the mother's blood.
Abnormally high levels of this substance suggests there may be defects in the fetal neural tube, a structure that will include the brain and spinal cord when completely developed. Abnormally low levels suggest the possibility of Down' syndrome. Braxton Hicks' contractions — Short, fairly painless uterine contractions during pregnancy that may be mistaken for labor pains. They allow the uterus to grow and help circulate blood through the uterine blood vessels. Chloasma — A skin discoloration common during pregnancy, also known as the "mask of pregnancy" or melasma, in which blotches of pale brown skin appear on the face.
It is usually caused by hormonal changes. The blotches may appear in the forehead, cheeks, and nose, and may merge into one dark mask. Some women may also find that the line running from the top to the bottom of their abdomen darkens. Embryo — An unborn child during the first eight weeks of development following conception fertilization with sperm. For the rest of pregnancy, the embryo is known as a fetus. Fetus — An unborn child from the end of the eights week after fertilization until birth. Human chorionic gonadotropin hCG — A hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy. Placenta — The organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy that links the blood supplies of the mother and baby. Rhythm method — The oldest method of contraception with a very high failure rate, in which partners periodically refrain from having sex during ovulation.
Ovulation is predicted on the basis of a woman's previous menstrual cycle. Spina bifida — A congenital defect in which part of the vertebrae fail to develop completely, leaving a portion of the spinal cord exposed. There are many ways to avoid pregnancy. A woman has a choice of many methods of contraception which will prevent pregnancy, including in order of least to most effective :. Positive Pregnancy and Parenting Fitness. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved. The average gestation period for a human pregnancy is 10 lunar months days from the first day of the last menstrual period. Once a month an ovum secondary oocyte matures in one of the ovaries and travels down the nearby fallopian tube to the uterus ; this process is called ovulation.
At Fertilization , which must take place within a day or two of ovulation, one of the spermatozoa unites with the ovum to form a zygote. The zygote then implants itself in the wall of the uterus, which is richly supplied with blood, and begins to grow. See also reproduction. Signs of Pregnancy. Usually the first indication of pregnancy is a missed menstrual period. Unless the period is more than 10 days late, however, this is not a definite indication, since many factors, including a strong fear of pregnancy, can delay menstruation. Nausea, or morning sickness , usually begins in the fifth or sixth week of pregnancy.
About 4 weeks after conception, changes in the breasts become noticeable: there may be a tingling sensation in the breasts, the nipples enlarge, and the areolae dark areas around nipples may become darker. Frequent urination, another early sign, is the result of expansion of the uterus, which presses on the bladder. Other signs of pregnancy include softening of the cervix and filling of the cervical canal with a plug of mucus. Early in labor this plug is expelled and there is slight bleeding; expulsion of the mucous plug is known as show and indicates the beginning of cervical dilatation.
When the abdominal wall becomes stretched there may be a breaking down of elastic tissues, resulting in depressed areas in the skin which are smooth and reddened. These markings are called striae gravidarum. In subsequent pregnancies the old striae appear as whitish streaks and frequently do not disappear completely. There are several fairly accurate laboratory tests for pregnancy; all are designed to detect human chorionic gonadotropin hCG , a hormone produced by living chorionic placental tissue and evident in the blood and urine of pregnant women. See also pregnancy tests. Growth of the Fetus. The average pregnancy lasts about days, or 40 weeks, from the date of conception to childbirth. This is approximate, since pregnancy may be shorter than the average or can last as long as days.
For stages of growth of the fetus, see fetus. Care of the Fetus. A host of influences can adversely affect the growth and development of the fetus and his or her chances for survival and good health after birth. The diet of the mother should be nutritious and well-balanced so that the fetus receives the necessary food elements for development and maturity of body structures. It is especially important that the mother receive adequate protein in her diet, because a protein deficiency can hamper fetal intellectual development. Supplemental iron and vitamins usually are recommended during pregnancy.
There is now less emphasis on severe restriction of the mother's dietary intake to maintain a limited weight gain. The average gain is about 28 lb during pregnancy, and either starvation diets or forced feedings can be unhealthy for the mother and hazardous for the fetus. Ideally, the mother should achieve normal weight before she becomes pregnant because obesity increases the possibility of eclampsia and other serious complications of pregnancy.
Mothers who are underweight are more likely to deliver immature babies who, by virtue of their physiologic immaturity, are more likely to suffer from birth defects, hyaline membrane disease , and other developmental disorders of the newborn. Other factors affecting the fetus include certain drugs taken by the mother during pregnancy. A well-known example is thalidomide, which inhibits the growth of the extremities of the fetus, resulting in gross deformities. Many drugs, including prescription as well as nonprescription medications, are now believed to be capable of causing fetal abnormalities.
In addition, consumption of alcohol during pregnancy may result in fetal alcohol syndrome. Most health care providers recommend that all drugs be avoided during pregnancy except those essential to the control of disease in the mother. Diseases that increase the risk of obstetrical complications include diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, kidney disease, and anemia. Sexually transmitted diseases can have tragic effects on the baby, even though the symptoms in the mother are minor at the time of pregnancy. The baby is either stillborn or born infected, and rarely escapes physical or mental defects or both. Successful treatment of the mother before the fifth month of pregnancy will prevent infection in the infant. During the birth process the infant may be infected with gonorrhea as it passes through the birth canal.
Gonorrheal infection of the eyes can cause blindness. The mortality and morbidity rates for such infected infants are high. The age of the mother is also an important factor in the well-being of the fetus. The mortality and morbidity rate for infants born of mothers below age 15 and above 40 are higher than for those of mothers between these ages. Recently developed tests to monitor fetal health have taken much of the guesswork out of predicting the chances of survival and health status of the fetus after birth.
Such tests and evaluation techniques include amniocentesis , chemical and hormonal assays, biophysical profiles, testing for alpha-fetoprotein, ultrasound examinations, electronic surveillance of fetal vital signs and reaction to uterine contractions, and analyses of the infant's blood during labor. Prenatal Care. The care of the mother during her entire pregnancy is important to her well-being and that of the fetus she is carrying. It will help provide ease and safety during pregnancy and childbirth. The health care provider learns about the patient's physical condition and medical history, and can detect possible complications before they become serious. On the first prenatal visit the patient's medical history is taken in considerable detail, including any diseases or operations she has had, the course of previous pregnancies, if any, and whether there is a family history of multiple births or of diabetes mellitus or other chronic diseases.
The first visit also includes a thorough physical examination and measurement of the pelvis. Blood samples are taken for screening for rubella and sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, hepatitis B, chlamydiosis, infection by the human immunodeficiency virus, and other conditions. A complete blood count is also needed. Urine is tested for albumin and sugar and examined microscopically. On subsequent visits the patient brings a urine specimen, collected upon arising that morning, to be tested for albumin and glucose. At each prenatal visit her blood pressure is taken and recorded and she is weighed.
In the second trimester, when the uterus becomes an abdominal organ, the height of the fundus is measured at each visit. After the sixth month a rule such as mcdonald's rule can be applied to assess fetal growth. Patients who are considered high-risk mothers usually are sent to a specialist and the infant is delivered at a regional hospital where sophisticated monitoring equipment and laboratory tests are available, and specially trained personnel can attend to the needs of the mother and her infant. Discomforts and Complications. Often it requires no treatment or can be relieved by such simple measures as eating dry crackers and tea before rising.
Indigestion and heartburn are best prevented by avoiding foods that are difficult to digest, such as cucumbers, cabbage, cauliflower, spinach, onions, and rich foods. Constipation usually can be corrected by diet or a mild laxative; strong laxatives should not be used unless prescribed by the health care provider. A visit to a dentist early in pregnancy is a good idea to forestall any possibility of infection arising from tooth decay.
Pregnancy does not encourage tooth decay. Hemorrhoids sometimes occur in pregnancy because of pressure from the enlarged uterus on the veins in the rectum. The health care provider should be consulted for treatment. Lying flat with the feet raised on a pillow several times a day will help relieve swelling and pain in the legs. In more difficult cases the health care provider may prescribe an elastic bandage or support stockings. Backache during pregnancy is caused by the heavy abdomen pulling on muscles that are not normally used, and can be relieved by rest, sensible shoes, and good posture.
Swelling of the feet and ankles usually is relieved by rest and by remaining off the feet for a day or two. If the swelling does not disappear, the health care provider should be informed since it may be an indication of a more serious complication. Shortness of breath is common in the later stages of pregnancy. If at any time it becomes so extreme that the woman cannot climb a short flight of stairs without discomfort, the health care provider should be consulted.
If a mild shortness of breath interferes with sleep, lying in a half-sitting position, supported by several pillows, may help. The more serious complications of pregnancy include pyelitis , hyperemesis gravidarum , eclampsia , and placenta previa and abruptio placentae. Uterine levels in pregnancy. Called also extrauterine pregnancy. In a tubal pregnancy a spontaneous abortion may occur, but more often the fetus will grow to a size large enough to rupture the tube. This is an emergency situation requiring immediate treatment. The symptoms of such a tubal rupture are vaginal bleeding and severe pain in one side of the abdomen. Prompt surgery is necessary to remove the damaged tube and the fetus, and to stop the bleeding. Fortunately, the removal of one tube usually leaves the other one intact, so that future pregnancy is possible.
Patients who are Rh-negative should be given Rh 0 D immune globulin RhoGAM after ectopic pregnancy for isoimmunization protection in future pregnancies. Ectopic pregnancy. The fallopian tube is the most common site for ectopic pregnancies but they can also occur on the ovary or the peritoneal surface of the abdominal cavity. From Damjanov, The resultant child represents only the male of the marital unit, and may be adopted by the female. By the first missed menstrual period or shortly thereafter, human chorionic gonadotropin hCG , a hormone secreted by the placenta, is present in the blood and urine of a pregnant woman.
It was formerly determined by bioassay in which a urine or serum specimen was injected into a laboratory animal and the response of ovarian tissue was noted. All testing now uses immunologic techniques based on antigen-antibody binding between hCG and anti-hCG antibody. There are several commercial kits available see early pregnancy tests , based on the agglutination of hCG-coated latex particles by anti-hCG serum, which is inhibited if the urine specimen added to the serum contains hCG. Clinical laboratories generally use radioimmunoassay or radioreceptor assay to determine serum hCG levels.
These methods are more accurate and less likely to produce false-positive results. The state of a female after conception and until the termination of the gestation. We really need to become aware of our bodies and as women demand more. We have this acceptance that feeling exhausted or burnt out is just natural. Most Read Most Recent. You can also win large cash prizes by playing Lotto Plus 1 and Lotto Plus 2. Kilkenny nurse Niamh Carroll renovates dream bungalow home in only six months Real Life Niamh Carroll had no experience with interior design before renovating her stunning Kilkenny bungalow in six months and turning it into the perfect home of her dreams.
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Archived from the original on Retrieved Health Careers. American Osteopathic Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Retrieved 19 September Gynaecology Gynecologic oncology Maternal—fetal medicine Obstetrics Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Urogynecology. Category Commons Wikiproject Portal Outline. Tests and procedures relating to pregnancy and childbirth. Pregnancy test Leopold's maneuvers Prenatal testing. Obstetric ultrasonography Nuchal scan Anomaly scan Fetal movement counting Contraction stress test Nonstress test Vibroacoustic stimulation Biophysical profile Amniotic fluid index Umbilical artery dopplers. Chorionic villus sampling Amniocentesis Triple test Quad test Fetoscopy Fetal scalp blood testing Fetal scalp stimulation test Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling Apt test Kleihauer—Betke test Lung maturity Lecithin—sphingomyelin ratio Lamellar body count Fetal fibronectin test.
Fetal surgery Fetendo Podalic version External cephalic version Amnioinfusion. Artificial rupture of membranes Episiotomy Symphysiotomy Forceps in childbirth Ventouse in childbirth Odon device. McRoberts maneuver Wood's screw maneuver Zavanelli maneuver. Manual placenta removal.Nicholas T. All testing How To Become An Obstetrician uses immunologic techniques based on Thanksgiving And Christmas Similarities binding between hCG and anti-hCG How To Become An Obstetrician. As a cardiothoracic surgeon you will probably get How To Become An Obstetrician more night sleep hours as compared to an Obstetrician. Is a highly mathematically oriented mind pretty much mandatory? It's not a sure sign, How To Become An Obstetrician possible.