⌛ The Ethical Role Of Human Trafficking In India

Thursday, August 12, 2021 3:35:32 PM

The Ethical Role Of Human Trafficking In India



Coercion in the case of sex The Ethical Role Of Human Trafficking In India includes the broad array of nonviolent means included in the forced The Ethical Role Of Human Trafficking In India The Theme Of Revenge In Beowulf. Traffickers can commit this The Ethical Role Of Human Trafficking In India in any sector or setting, whether legal or illicit, including but not limited to agricultural fields, factories, restaurants, hotels, massage parlors, retail stores, fishing vessels, mines, private homes, or drug trafficking operations. Ramakanta Satapathy Human trafficking is disadvantages of a digital camera universal issue. The FATF Recommendations provide a useful Football Coach Judgement Essay for jurisdictions to address illicit finance related to The Ethical Role Of Human Trafficking In India trafficking by strengthening their national AML laws and policies and by improving coordination and information sharing domestically and internationally. For example, law enforcement may become inundated with false information they are required The Ethical Role Of Human Trafficking In India follow up on or investigate, especially Athletes Get Paid reports The Ethical Role Of Human Trafficking In India to children, stretching already limited time and resources. The Ethical Role Of Human Trafficking In India can take up community surveillances which will help check ongoing trafficking activities. Staff and relevant stakeholders should be able to observe The Ethical Role Of Human Trafficking In India child from a separate room, where appropriate. It manifests The Ethical Role Of Human Trafficking In India societal exclusion and prejudices Marriage In The 1700s those communities, which help perpetuate an imbalance The Ethical Role Of Human Trafficking In India opportunity and support. In the case of child The Ethical Role Of Human Trafficking In India trafficking, the consent of the victim is never relevant as a child cannot legally consent to commercial sex.

India: Child trafficking crisis amid Covid-19

These are but a few ways that social workers can engage on this issue. I would like to challenge social workers going into the field to acknowledge that all forms of human trafficking exist and that all those victimized need the attention of social work. I would challenge social workers to work diligently to address the social issues that lead to the victimization of others. The existence of human trafficking is a result of greater societal problems — childhood abuse and neglect, poverty, lack of educational opportunity, addiction, mental illness, homelessness, war, and dislocation, to name only a few.

I would challenge social workers to uphold their social work values with all persons as we, together as a profession, can guide the conversations and the work of obtaining social justice for all. Social Work vs. Please refer to www. It is a really sad situation which India is facing. In almost every city there are certain parts filled with brothels. Human trafficking includes sexual exploitation, labour trafficking, etc. Nowadays even cross-border human trafficking is prevalent. India has a huge population and because of that and our dwindling economy many people live below the poverty line. The smugglers and traffickers promise them a better life- a ray of hope, jobs as domestic servants, in the film world or in factories.

They can offer them money, pleasure trip invitations or false promises of marriage. The main targets are the people who lack job opportunities, who have been victim to regional imbalances or social discrimination, mentally disturbed, or the people who have growing deprivation and are from the marginalized communities or people caught in debt bondages or because their parents think that their children are burden and sell them off — in simple words- the poor, helpless people are the ones who are exploited the most.

It has now become an organized institution and we as youth have to do everything to remove this social vice from our country because the deliberate institutionalized trafficking of human life is the greatest degradation to the dignity of human personality. The period they choose for trafficking depends on if that place has suffered a drought or social or political disasters recently, so that it would be easier to lure in the already suffering victims. They hand the victims to the brothel owners, escort services, or managers of a sex establishment. The reasons for human trafficking are many, despite 60 years of independence , the benefits of economic development have not trickled down to the marginalized sections of the society and millions of people still live below the poverty line.

The poverty and hunger makes children and women belonging to the poor sections of the society highly vulnerable to human trafficking. Social and religious practices too have been a big cause. There is an inexplicable apathy in the approach of law enforcement agencies when it comes to dealing with human trafficking. As India sees towards the world, it leaves behind the scars on its ground —the poor who are exploited. We can take help of the media-spread awareness. We as youngsters should stop this. Even little things like helping out the malnourished, poor or treating the house maids properly can make a difference because they form the major causes for human trafficking. The emerging scenarios are certainly positive but displaying full-page advertisements against child labour, women slaves, etc in national newspapers at periodic intervals is not enough.

We can take up community surveillances which will help check ongoing trafficking activities. We as the youth can take up initiatives to spread awareness programs in villages, local schools, among kids of the poor society and children suffering from parents and poor conditions where help can be provided. Human trafficking lowers the value of human life; it brutalizes the society and violates our belief in the human capacity for a change. Production of Space. Nobody is at all ashamed of the deep-rooted corruption, decaying general quality of life, worst Politico-administrative system, weak mother language, continuous absorption of common space mental as well as physical, both.

Do not ever look for any other positive alternative behaviour values to perform human way of parenthood, i. All of us are being driven only by the very animal instinct. I have alwyz been scared to be traffikd into prostitution, dont know why bt i alwz ws n naw i choose dis field of work.. I am soley mentioning India cuz here d people who are victimized are mostly uneducated and unaware. Apart frm education ders financial problms dat lead to dis, Greed of money, birth of girl child, helpless situations can also b considered as sum of d reasons.. Its really sad dat inspite of d fact dat our country is developing in various ways ,it still has problems dat cannot be cured or removed… Today we talk about Women Empowerment bt where are we empowering??

Is it soo hard for us to understand that it also effects our society badly, above that its effecting d Human beings.. Personally i really do want to work for this and i will do it n dats fo sure. Its their girls life so no one has the right to take decision on it…. I em quite much impressed with your nice thots abt human trafficng…. I am quite much impressed with your nice opinion about human trafficking….

I am also in the queue and going to give a presentation soon in my office. I will mention your points as well. Mohit, your thought is very fair. I am really in favor of this because sometimes we just keep think however not able to be active. Being a part of the Bodo community and understanding that the Bodo community being as one of the trafficked community in Assam, I appeal all Bodo peoples to raise their thumbs up to fighting this crime against humanity.

Being a policeman having commitment to root out this menace of trafficking of humans I appeal the people of this state and the country to let me know about the damn traffickers and help me to rescue those poor folks. My Number Anyone looking forward to take any step in this direction or is already doing something, i request to them to get me involved there..

Its we youth only who have to make a change.. I will really work with full dedication for my country…. Thank you so much now i really motivated a lot with your participation. Over the past decade, two of the most highlighted conversations in the anti-trafficking movement have centered on the need to incorporate trauma-informed practices into anti-trafficking work and to invite survivors into leadership positions within organizations. As the anti-trafficking community has grappled with how to integrate these ideals, it often conflates them. For example, organizations will prioritize hiring a survivor as a staff member or consultant and then equate that action with becoming a fully trauma-informed entity, while failing to use a trauma-informed approach to care, which often retraumatizes individuals receiving services.

Disrespecting survivor leaders and their experiences hurts and further exploits survivors, who are key stakeholders in the anti-trafficking movement, and it ultimately perpetuates a harmful and deficient understanding of what it means to be survivor-informed. These dual harms raise the need for additional trainings to teach organizations how to properly incorporate survivor feedback and adopt a comprehensive, trauma-informed approach in practice.

Organizations must incorporate the voices of multiple survivors into their trauma-informed practices. Outlined below is a description of what it means to be both trauma- and survivor-informed, as well as recommendations on integrating both approaches as one, comprehensive effort. Trauma-informed practices build upon understanding the impact of trauma not only on individuals seeking services but also on all staff members and consultants working within an organization. As such, vicarious trauma and the mental health needs of all consultants and staff members should also be prioritized, as opposed to singling out survivor leaders as the only individuals affected by trafficking or other sources of trauma.

Because trauma-informed practices assume that every human being has experienced trauma of some kind, organizational structures should reflect the need for sensitivity and care surrounding all interactions and communications. According to the U. Federal agencies responded by sharing plans to apply a survivor-informed approach for human trafficking. In , the U. Advisory Council on Human Trafficking was established to advise federal agencies on their anti-trafficking policies and programs, including on the application of this approach to their efforts.

Despite the attention towards and growth in understanding of a survivor-informed approach, gaps arose in how different agencies and organizations in various settings applied it. The integration of survivor leadership and trauma-informed practices requires inclusive interactions with survivors of all forms of human trafficking with a diversity of perspectives, such as gender, national origin, race, and sexuality. Organizations must listen to survivors and determine how best to adapt practices that honor and incorporate their input.

This process includes evaluating programs and policies with humility and commitment to change wherever possible, even where those changes will be difficult to implement. Organizations can set themselves up for success in a manner that is adaptive—not stagnant—to meet the evolving challenges of anti-trafficking efforts by mindfully weaving together survivor-leadership and trauma-informed approaches for the collective good of all who engage in anti-trafficking spaces. Organizations might be in different stages of understanding and implementing trauma-informed and survivor-centered processes. The following recommendations may be applicable for organizations at multiple stages of integration.

For many people, human trafficking evokes images of women and children being forcibly taken and sold into sexual slavery by strangers, or of people locked in rooms or vehicles far from home. These images, however, do not capture the reality of most cases of sex and labor trafficking. Human trafficking is typically not so simple or salacious. Most victims are not kidnapped by strangers or secretive syndicates. Instead, it is often their neighbors, relatives, romantic partners, or other acquaintances who exploit them.

Traffickers often use fraudulent, psychologically manipulative, or coercive recruitment methods so they need not kidnap or even physically restrain their victims. Unfortunately, enduring misconceptions about human trafficking have helped misinformation and rumors about the crime spread rapidly throughout communities and through social media, particularly in the United States. In recent years, participants in online forums have spread a number of false and misleading claims about child sex trafficking, sometimes deliberately deceiving the public through disinformation efforts connected to conspiracy theories unrelated to human trafficking.

This content often becomes viral on mainstream social media platforms, taking advantage of well-intentioned members of the public, including those who want to take action to make a difference. Rumors and theories that a global cabal of politicians and celebrities are exploiting children, that companies selling furniture or other high-priced items online are also selling missing children, or that phishing texts are tricking people into human trafficking schemes are all unfounded and perpetuate false narratives about the realities of human trafficking. More concerning, this spread of misinformation has real and detrimental impacts on the ability of the anti-trafficking community to protect those who have or are currently experiencing human trafficking and to bring traffickers to justice.

It is imperative that the public fully understand the negative effects that spreading and acting on these rumors and misinformation can have on service providers, victims and survivors, and the broader anti-trafficking field. When false or misleading rumors about human trafficking quickly spread online and through social media, concerned individuals may want to take action because they genuinely believe the information. While the help of the public is a crucial part of anti-trafficking efforts, the public can inadvertently interfere when its actions are based on false information or on tips from individuals with no direct knowledge of human trafficking situations.

Such interference can have damaging effects on the ability of law enforcement, NGOs, and other victim service providers to respond to real cases. For example, law enforcement may become inundated with false information they are required to follow up on or investigate, especially when reports relate to children, stretching already limited time and resources. In addition, a barrage of calls and tips related to misinformation about human trafficking online can overwhelm systems of intervention and care that have been established to respond to potential and confirmed cases of human trafficking.

Under such a deluge, someone with information about a case or who may be a victim in real crisis will face longer service wait times and may miss their momentary chance to connect to a service provider. Advocates and service providers must take all reports of human trafficking seriously, which means that increased reports based on false information make it more difficult for responders to provide support to victims of human trafficking. The spread of misinformation about human trafficking also means that anti-trafficking experts and organizations need to allocate time and resources to re-educate the public. Allocating resources to debunk myths and misinformation about human trafficking takes time away from critical services including responding to survivors seeking help.

Resources for these organizations are often already strained and should be directed towards evidence-based solutions to combat human trafficking. NGOs have also reported experiencing cyberattacks and threats on social media when they post statements debunking misinformation. Some employees of NGOs that help identify and provide services to survivors of human trafficking have even faced threats of violence by followers of these theories. These attacks and threats may require that the organizations divert even more resources away from victim services to improve cyber security and personal security for NGO staff.

Another serious concern is the emotional strain and trauma experienced by staff at these NGOs. Individuals working to support survivors of human trafficking, including those who have dedicated their lives to this work, can become discouraged as the spread of misinformation distracts from providing services. Survivors report having seen stories based on false information and feeling re-exploited because the trauma they faced is now being questioned or used for nefarious, and sometimes political, purposes.

Privacy intrusions are also a concern and occur when information or images about people mistakenly believed to be trafficking victims, or those of actual victims, are shared in connection to conspiracy misinformation or disinformation. Of further concern, experts have identified the strategic production and dissemination of false narratives about sex trafficking by white supremacists and other extremists, including violent extremists, in the United States as a means of recruiting new members.

Thus, it is imperative to stop the spread of misinformation, including conspiracy theories, both to combat sex and labor trafficking and to prevent violent extremism and counter threats to U. It is easy to understand why individuals would see something online about human trafficking, especially when it involves children, and feel the need to share or act on the information. At first, it may not be apparent that acting on this information could have any harmful consequences. The recent scale of misinformation about human trafficking, however, distracts from the real crime, and may have long-lasting negative effects on efforts to combat it and to aid actual victims of human trafficking.

Individuals who wish to learn more about what human trafficking looks like in their own communities should seek out resources from established organizations and government agencies that use evidence-based solutions to address the crime. Many reputable sources publish information online to help the public understand when information being shared about human trafficking is misleading or false. Often the people in the best position to identify a potential case of human trafficking are neighbors, family members, friends, or others close to victims or traffickers. An important component of any successful anti-trafficking strategy is a well-informed public that understands the real indicators of the crime and can identify it when it happens in their own communities.

The illicit financial activity that human trafficking generates includes, but is not limited to: payments associated with the transport of victims and other logistics such as hotels or plane tickets; collection of proceeds generated by the exploitation of trafficking victims and by the sale of goods produced through their exploitation; movement of proceeds; and bribery and corrupt dealings to facilitate human trafficking. One of the most effective ways to identify broader criminal networks and take the profit out of this crime is to follow the financial trail human traffickers leave behind. With proper training and guidance, financial institutions and designated non-financial businesses are able to identify illicit finance related to human trafficking and report potential cases.

Proactive partnerships between governments, financial institutions, law enforcement, civil society, and survivor experts are critical to identifying illicit financial activity associated with human trafficking. Removing the ability to profit from the crime disincentivizes traffickers and serves as a crucial deterrent to prevent the crime altogether. The UN TIP Protocol, which is widely ratified, mandates the criminalization of money laundering when proceeds are derived from human trafficking and encourages signatories to promote international cooperation between their respective national authorities addressing money laundering.

More than countries have agreed to implement the FATF Recommendations, which require member countries to identify, assess, and understand money laundering and illicit finance risks and to mitigate those risks. The FATF Recommendations provide a useful framework for jurisdictions to address illicit finance related to human trafficking by strengthening their national AML laws and policies and by improving coordination and information sharing domestically and internationally. The FATF Recommendations also encourage jurisdictions to undertake proactive parallel financial investigations, including by collaborating with public and private financial institutions, as a standard practice when investigating and prosecuting human trafficking crimes, with a view to tracing, freezing, and confiscating proceeds acquired through this crime.

In the United States, the Bank Secrecy Act BSA mandates that financial institutions monitor and report suspected illegal activity, such as human trafficking, as well as certain high-dollar cash transactions. This reporting and information sharing can be highly useful in tracking and tracing proceeds related to human trafficking. It is essential that financial institutions train staff on techniques human traffickers use to launder money and the behavioral and financial red flag indicators of human trafficking.

Trained customer-facing staff can recognize, document, and report behavioral indicators of human trafficking. Further, financial institutions can engage with survivors of human trafficking to inform their efforts, including on the development of training programs to enhance the ability of frontline staff and other industry professionals to detect transactions connected to human trafficking, how and when to intervene, and how to determine when a third party is benefitting from the exploitation of another.

Consulting with survivors to review existing AML protocols and systems could help to identify gaps and possible improvements. As a result, there was a significant increase in suspicious transaction reports filed by financial institutions related to this activity. FINTRAC disclosed this information to law enforcement to help expand or refine the scope of their cases, uncover new targets, obtain search warrants, and identify assets for seizure or forfeiture.

Canadian authorities provided disclosures to counterparts in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Portugal, Jamaica, and Brazil, demonstrating the transnational nature of human trafficking and the importance of international cooperation to end it. Perpetrators use technology in human trafficking schemes. Human trafficking rings often use instant and secure communication mechanisms to facilitate activities among members and employ GPS location applications as one way to remotely control victims. While human trafficking actors and organizations typically generate illicit proceeds in cash or through the traditional financial system, they sometimes use cryptocurrency.

Cryptocurrency transactions, including those involving human trafficking, are recorded on public blockchains. Depending on whether and to what extent anonymizing technologies are applied, blockchain transactions can be analyzed to identify patterns indicative of criminal activity. For example, experts have developed techniques to link some cryptocurrency transaction records to online commercial sex advertisements, which can provide additional information on human trafficking networks. Innovative AML compliance solutions that use big data, advanced analytics, network analysis, and, increasingly, artificial intelligence to monitor transactions and identify and report suspicious transactions can assist governments and the private sector in identifying and combating human trafficking networks.

Traffickers also exploit financial sector innovations, such as prepaid cards and mobile payment applications, to accept payments or move funds through the financial system. Authorities have detected the use of third-party payment processors TPPPs by traffickers and their facilitators to wire funds, which gives the appearance that the TPPP is the originator or beneficiary of the wire transfer and conceals the true originator or beneficiary. The use of these innovations leaves digital footprints, which may be detected as these transactions pass through the financial system.

Survivors of human trafficking often discover that human traffickers have taken control of their financial identity or banking products and limited or prevented their access to the financial system, spoiling their credit record and hindering their financial reintegration. Financial institutions and civil society can play an important role in assisting survivors in the recovery process by providing them access to digital financial services, such as online microcredit, without requiring traditional identity documentation.

Governments can also play a role by supporting the use of digital financial services and innovative tools to assist victims who have been harmed financially. Digital identity solutions and access to digital financial services can help victims securely obtain financial assistance from governments or NGOs, access victim support services, repair their credit, and receive restitution payments when appropriate and available. The Liechtenstein Initiative for Finance Against Slavery and Trafficking is a public-private partnership launched in September to respond to calls from the G7, the G20, the UN General Assembly, and the UN Security Council for governments to partner with the private sector to address human trafficking.

Its Survivor Inclusion Initiative works to facilitate survivor access to basic banking services, such as checking and savings accounts by connecting survivors to financial institutions. To support survivors in rebuilding their lives and preventing further exploitation, the financial sector can offer account qualification exception programs and low-to-no fee second chance accounts. Governments, investors, researchers, and civil-society actors should explore how microfinance and other forms of social finance can support survivors. In many ways, the United States and other governments face human trafficking challenges and trends today that reflect the living legacy of the systemic racism and colonization globalized during the transatlantic slave trade through chattel slavery and regional practices of indigenous dispossession.

While U. To be truly effective, a comprehensive approach to prosecution, protection, and—most of all—prevention must embed racial justice and equity across its policies and programs. Department of State leads the U. Years of studies, data, and the direct knowledge of those with lived experience of human trafficking demonstrate that systemic racism undercuts the intended goals of prosecuting traffickers, protecting those victimized, and preventing human trafficking in significant ways. This body of information provides a strong foundation from which to learn. For instance, advocates, survivors, and other experts have found that ingrained racial biases and stereotypes, which were created as a way to dehumanize certain racial communities to justify their exploitation and exclusion, hinder progress in anti-trafficking efforts because they lead to racially disparate assumptions about who is a trafficker and who should have access to victim protection and services.

These stereotypes may affect, for example, which communities law enforcement target for anti-trafficking operations, which victim witnesses the criminal justice system deems credible, and which individuals process their experiences as exploitation and seek help. Traffickers, in turn, factor these racial biases and stereotypes into schemes and strategies aimed at reducing their own risk of getting caught while increasing the risk of law enforcement improperly penalizing victims. Another powerful way systemic racism has perpetuated human trafficking and hindered anti-trafficking efforts is through discriminatory government policies and private practices that create disparities in access to economic means or opportunities, which traffickers exploit to compel victims in sex trafficking or forced labor.

Predatory and exclusionary practices that keep certain racial communities from attaining financial stability and building generational wealth provide traffickers ample opportunity to offer tempting alternatives. These harmful practices include redlining, lending discrimination, unequal distribution of government subsidies and services, restricted entry into white collar or higher paying jobs, and intentional exclusions of certain professions from worker protections.

Traffickers often seek out individuals with weaker community or family connections, knowing they have fewer safeguards. The chattel slavery system relied on the separation of family units during auctions and trading of enslaved people. It restricted where and how enslaved people could gather or socialize to weaken communal bonds to avoid a unified rebellion for freedom. This pattern of fracturing families and communities has led to an unjust overrepresentation of Black individuals in other systems, like prisons, runaway and homeless youth services, and foster or institutional care, that exacerbate the social isolation and vulnerability on which traffickers prey. Such policies have resulted in an ongoing disproportionate number of Native children in the child welfare system, increasing their vulnerability to human trafficking.

These are only a few of the many manifestations of systemic racism that inhibit an effective anti-trafficking response. The following excerpts highlight the reflections of some who have directly experienced the ways in which systemic racism intersects with human trafficking in the United States and provide insight and guidance on how best to move forward. Human trafficking continues to be a critical threat to Black communities. Standing in solidarity with Black lives also means speaking up for the injustices plaguing Black communities that are overwhelmed with trafficking victims. First, we must understand the disparities that disproportionately affect Black trafficking survivors.

Then, we must do a better job supporting survivors when they escape. Many victims struggle with a long list of criminal offenses that follow them for the rest of their lives. It has exacerbated our isolation, increased our stress, and undermined our efforts to recover from trauma…. Allow me to repeat myself: we were SOLD. In my case, being a person of color sold by a white person to other white people was painful on multiple levels. There is a big problem of Black and Brown bodies being treated differently from White bodies. There is a connection and a disparity from police profiling, arrest, incarceration rates, sentencing, and recidivism. When a White person goes missing, you hear about it every five minutes.

While the racial dimensions of human trafficking manifest in different ways in each country, human trafficking still mirrors—and thrives because of—widespread inequities between racial groups. This is seen, for example, in the overrepresentation of human trafficking victims among Black populations in some parts of South America, the lack of protections afforded to migrant workers in the Gulf that creates a dependence on others that traffickers can exploit, and the intentional targeting of Roma communities through law enforcement anti-trafficking operations in Eastern Europe. For the United States, this means confronting its history of chattel slavery, indigenous dispossession, and the centuries-long racial campaigns of violence, fear, and trauma that followed.

As the United States strives to grapple with its past and increasingly root its anti-trafficking work in racial equity, it must also draw from the courage, expertise, and leadership of communities harmed by the interlocking cruelties of systemic racism and human trafficking. We invite other governments and global partners to join in this effort and hold each other accountable. The needs of child trafficking victims and the related legal reporting requirements differ significantly from those of adult victims. Government authorities and service providers should take special measures to ensure appropriate and tailored support and care are available to them.

Children should receive immediate support and assistance in a safe and comfortable setting that is not intimidating or retraumatizing. Child-friendly spaces are an essential component to holistic victim-centered and trauma-informed care for child survivors of human trafficking. Child-friendly spaces have traditionally been used in refugee camps or after natural disasters, but increasingly those in the anti-trafficking field are using them to provide comprehensive assistance and support to child trafficking victims in other settings. These spaces, which can be a separate room or even just a corner of a regular interview room, are typically located in existing structures such as police stations or hospitals and are administered by the government or an NGO.

The use of child-friendly spaces reflects a multidisciplinary approach, providing a place for children to feel safe in the wake of trauma and for social workers, medical professionals, law enforcement, and others to conduct victim interviews, psychosocial counseling, and medical care all in the same location. In addition to putting a child trafficking victim at ease by providing a safe and structured environment for play and learning, such spaces also can help facilitate the prosecution of human traffickers by offering critical support to children as they provide information to law enforcement to help hold perpetrators accountable.

While they may look slightly different depending on their particular function, the country in which they operate, or the level of resources available, effective child-friendly spaces often share common features that can be replicated as promising practices. First, child-friendly spaces provide a calm and reassuring physical environment. Toys, art supplies, and age-appropriate books are also provided.

A comforting environment and informal play can assist survivors in expressing their feelings of fear and distress while also supporting their resiliency. Second, ensuring that a child feels safe is crucial, which means that the physical space must be easily accessible, ideally through its own entrance and exit, and separates the survivor from the perpetrator to prevent further trauma.

A safe space affords children privacy so they can talk about their experiences more freely. Staff and relevant stakeholders should be able to observe the child from a separate room, where appropriate. Third, a multidisciplinary child-friendly space provides survivors with an array of comprehensive services and referral networks in one place. In addition to addressing immediate needs by providing food, water, and sanitary facilities, a child-friendly space should address longer-term needs through the provision of medical screening and services, psychosocial counseling, referrals, and information about legal proceedings.

Receiving various services in one place and during the same timeframe shields the survivor from having to repeat the story of what happened to them multiple times. Finally, all services provided in the space should be trauma-informed, age-appropriate, and culturally and linguistically sensitive. This means that service providers can recognize signs of trauma in individuals and respond by integrating knowledge about trauma into policies, procedures, practices, and settings. Service providers should make sure children understand their rights and are empowered to make decisions about their own care, where appropriate.

A trauma-informed approach should ultimately build trust and transparency between survivors and service providers, and it must also be responsive to gender, age, ethnic, and cultural differences. This last component is crucial, as interviewing and service provision that is not trauma-informed or in the best interest of the child can be retraumatizing and inhibit a successful recovery.

Given constraints around physical space and financial resources, service providers and NGOs may need to develop creative ways to establish a child-friendly space. If a separate room is not available, a child-friendly corner of a larger interview room can also serve as a designated section that is welcoming to children. When assessing needs, a child-friendly waiting room might take priority.

Families may require children to find work due to lost income, government and NGO protection services may be reduced, and children might not be attending school where they have access to trusted adults. Because of this increased vulnerability, establishing and maintaining child-friendly spaces is critical to prioritize during the pandemic; they can even be a safe place where children learn about public health protections such as social distancing, mask wearing, and proper hygiene. Every year adults and, to a lesser extent, children migrate voluntarily to countries in the Middle East to work in a variety of sectors, such as agriculture, construction, and domestic service.

Under this sponsorship system, migrant workers who leave their place of employment without permission from their employer forfeit their legal status and thereby increase their risk of arrest and deportation. These trafficking victims have little or no recourse; they are coerced either to remain in an exploitative position or leave their sponsor and face arrest, detention, or deportation for immigration offenses, or even punishment for unlawful acts their traffickers compelled them to commit.

Allowing migrant workers to have full freedom of movement and to switch employers without penalty would help prevent human trafficking. In addition, providing migrant workers with information on their rights and obligations, on complaint mechanisms in case of abuse, and on how to access assistance and remedies, would empower them to identify and leave exploitative situations. Efforts to reform the kafala system and develop non-exploitative policies would benefit from input and recommendations from survivors who experienced forced labor under this system.

States can take additional measures to address the vulnerabilities to human trafficking created by the kafala system, such as those described below. It was the winter after my 19th year; my mother was informed that I was seeing a boy. I knew my family loathed gays. When the tables turned onto me, I already knew their opinions. That was the year Matthew Shepard was beaten and left for dead hanging on a fence. I was cleaning up in bathrooms and going to college and work. Then the church started the process of ex-communication to revoke my college scholarships because they believed I was willingly living my life in sin.

I finished out the semester and decided I would wait for a bit to finish college. I went to the city north of my hometown and started couch surfing with people from the clubs I went to. Some of us were there to pay off the debts owed to the bar owner. We were given drugs that kept us numb. Our debts were too high. We paid daily for a bed, for the space at the bar, for the help the bar owners gave us. We traveled a lot; we were always on the road between cities, between states, and wherever we were told to go. There were always lies, and it was never as glamorous as we were promised.

Do you get to choose to be abused in a society where death is the alternative? Living in abandoned places meant our cars were taken, we were mugged, we had our modest apartments broke into—life was hard. In three years, I had slept with over people. I always expected to test positive, so when I retested, I was in shock when it came back negative. I left the escort service at that point.

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