⚡ 1984 And Brave New World: A Comparative Analysis
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Brave New World - Summary \u0026 Analysis - Aldous Huxley
As with all new mediums, artists began to wield these brave new innovations of society, including television, the introduction of the personal computer, the accessibility of audio and visual software, and eventually the internet, into works of their own, with minds ever eager for the expansive opportunities to utilize contemporary means to evolve their voices anew. Although digital art is not recognized as a distinct movement in and of itself, as technology continues its jackrabbit fast bloom into contemporary society, we will no doubt continue to see it unfold into a myriad, ever-changing landscape, solidifying itself as a credible alternative to traditional means of art making for a post-millennial society.
Saying, "Technology has become the body's new membrane of existence," Nam June Paik pioneered digital art. His art conveyed, he said, "Our life is half natural and half technological," but "The future is now. Frieder Nake was trained as a mathematician and an artist. With the advent of the computer in the s, he added computer science to his roster of talent. By combining all these specialties, he became one of the earliest pioneers in the field of computer art. For this piece, Nake created an algorithm that instructed the computer to plot a series of shapes in order to produce a work of art. He programmed in the fundamental facts that would allow the computer to start drawing, and then placed in the algorithm containing random elements, which would allow the computer to take over and manipulate the outcome.
In doing this, Nake demonstrated how logic and technology could be used to produce a work of art whose appearance was based on chance. The piece was inspired by a painting by Paul Klee called Highroads and Byroads The Victoria and Albert Museum argues that Nake "was interested in the relationship between the vertical and the horizontal elements of Klee's painting. This was one of the earliest attempts at digital art, foreshadowing the inevitable relationship of man and machine in the realm of creativity. Nake would go on to make hundreds of works utilizing the relationship between computer and man, but also became noted for his decades-long career as a professor of interactive graphics and digital media design.
Kenneth C. Knowlton was a computer graphics specialist, artist, mosaicist, and portraitist who worked at the seminal research and scientific development company Bell Labs in the s alongside EAT founder Billy Kluver. Knowlton was pivotal in developing a programming language for bitmap computer-produced movies. In , while furthering this work with colleague Leon Harmon, in which they were experimenting with photomosaic - creating large prints from smaller symbols or images - the two created an image of a reclining nude.
They did this by scanning a photograph, then converting it into a pixelated, half tone image. Although the work was revolutionary, Bell Labs wanted to keep it quiet due to its racy subject matter. When the New York Times got word of the image, they ran it in the paper, claiming it the first nude of new media art. It became a true 20 th -century icon of an age-old artistic muse, the female nude, brought forth from a long historical lineage and placed on a new pedestal in a decidedly cutting edge fashion.
This early digital work by Allan Kaprow was described by the artist as a "tele-happening. Four locations were used to send and receive audio and sound, allowing for interaction between the people standing in front of each camera-monitor. Kaprow commanded which channels were opened and closed from the television station's control room. The participants could both see and hear each other despite their geographic remoteness from one another, creating a digital network that was prescient to the internet in its formulation. However, although the aim of the exercise appeared to be communication, the effect was often one of miscommunication and confusion, due to Kaprow's interference from the control room.
The interactions permitted by Hello suggested that digital communication was not always necessarily illuminating, but that it could sometimes be obfuscating as well. The work is significant because Kaprow used television to interrogate the nature of the networks, which were becoming an integral part of society in the late s. Digital art specialist Erika Balsom argues that: "Rather than confronting mass media as a vehicle for the unidirectional delivery of information as did many other artists of the time, Kaprow's Hello interrogated the desire to become part of the data stream and anticipated the internet of the s by reimagining television as a chaotic, dialogical space in which the content becomes, in the artist's words, 'oneself in connection with someone else'.
Content compiled and written by Anna Souter. Edited and revised, with Summary and Accomplishments added by Kimberly Nichols. The Art Story. The hermeneutical experience of truth can be described as the success of conversation so conceived. In the experience of truth as correct predication, truth is typically conceived as the property of a proposition, statement or utterance that suitably connects a subject with a predicate. In the hermeneutical experience of truth, by contrast, the concern is not with predication, that is, the connection of a subject with a predicate, but, instead, with conversation, grasped as an event of interlocution concerned with the being of a subject itself. In such a conversation, truth is reached, if it is reached, not when a subject is suitably connected with something else, but, instead, when the subject is sufficiently shown in its own being, as it truly is.
The measure of such sufficiency is established not in advance, but is achieved in the course of conversation along with the claim of truth that it measures. Philosophical hermeneutics maintains that the experience of truth as correct predication is dependent on the hermeneutical experience of truth. This is because in truth as correctness, the proper connection of subject and predicate depends in part on the being of the subject.
In predication, the being of the subject is typically either left out of account or is presumed already to be determined or interpreted. But, the being of the subject—what it truly is—is a matter of interpretation. In illustration, we may consider the fictional conversation presented by Plato in the Republic among Socrates, Glaucon and other interlocutors about justice. Truth as correctness, then, depends on the hermeneutical experience of truth, and such truth, in turn, is a matter of interpretation. Rather, it means that the hermeneutical experience of truth remains always a problem, whenever we wish to understand something, and even when a conversation culminates in an experience of truth.
Heidegger believes that for the self-interpretation of human existence, the interpretations of the human condition found in the human sciences are derivative; what is called for is an analysis of the sense of being, or, the structures, of human existence as these are disclosed through our own individual being in the world. Moreover, his inquiries range over topics in areas as diverse as religion, anthropology, psychology, history, and literature. His contributions to hermeneutics are perhaps especially characterized, however, by the concern for possibilities of the mediating role of language to establish critical distance in interpretive experience and by his focus on the significance of interpretive experience for ethical and political agency.
This involves a novel conception of interpretation itself. Traditionally in hermeneutics, the purpose of interpretation is thought of as making apparent the single, unitary meaning of something. Ricoeur, by contrast, stresses that the aim of interpretation also includes making apparent the plurality of meanings at issue in a speech act or text. Ricoeur maintains that narrative, too, concerns both sense and reference, but on a different scale. In this, he claims that in narrative the work of such schematization of temporal experience is achieved by the composition of the plot, or, emplotment. Through narrative emplotment, we make apparent the meaning of persons, relations, and events that comprise human affairs—say, in fiction, those that can happen, and in history, those that have happened.
Ricoeur maintains, however, that the referential function of narrative is not simply to assert something about the world but has implications for ethical and political life. In so doing, fiction refers to possibilities of reality that can orient our agency and contribute to our efforts to reshape reality. The most significant of these controversies are about the consequences of philosophical hermeneutics in relation to critical theory and to deconstruction. In the case of the controversy in relation to deconstruction, discussion originates between Jacques Derrida and Gadamer. While this discussion is itself layered and gives rise to new questions over time, it concerns, in part, the question of whether the success of understanding genuinely achieves a determination of meaning.
Habermas, building on Hegel, Marx and Engels, as well as his original theory of recognition and communication, maintains that an ideology is a nexus of political doctrines, beliefs, and attitudes that distort the political realities they purport to describe. Accordingly, ideologies reinforce equally distorted power relations that, in turn, prevent the openness of discussion that is necessary for legitimate democratic political deliberation and decision-making see Sypnowich , Sec. In view of this, one purpose of critical theory is to establish a basis to critique ideology. Habermas and other critical theorists sought a basis of critique with the ability to expose even some of our most cherished political doctrines, beliefs, and attitudes as ideological distortions that result from forms of domination passed down from tradition.
Moreover, as we might accordingly worry, what Gadamer describes as the hermeneutical experience of truth might not be an experience of truth at all, but, rather, a distorted communication that is complicit in ideology, since the so-called truth results from a conversation that might not be open, but oriented by prejudices that reinforce relations of domination. And, Gadamer stresses, second, that the hermeneutical experience of truth is no blind acceptance of the authority of tradition. Rather, as he argues, interpretive experience remains critical, in that such experience unfolds precisely though the questioning of our prejudices, and judgment about what aspects of our prejudices remain valid and which have become invalid for matters of concern to us now.
While the relation between hermeneutics and deconstruction is complex, pivotal for the controversy is whether the success of understanding really achieves a determinate meaning. Gadamer, as we have seen, maintains that the success of understanding is to understand something in its being, as it genuinely or truly is. Moreover, we experience such a truth as a claim, one that we can agree or disagree with, and that purports to be justified by the interpretive experience which first gives rise to it.
Gadamer, as we have said, trusts that our experience of truth really involves a determinate claim. First, Gadamer certainly recognizes that every determinate claim of truth remains open to further interpretation. And, second, he recognizes that the hermeneutical experience of a determine claim of truth is itself a legacy of difference, since interpretive experience unfolds in the free play of conversation. Matters of central concern for the philosophical controversy between hermeneutics and deconstruction have also been further developed by several philosophers associated with hermeneutics, such as John Caputo , James Risser , Donatella di Cesare and others.
The rise of postmodernism has proved to be an important impetus for developments within hermeneutics. Examples of metanarratives include, say, stories about the objectivity of science and the contribution that science makes to the betterment of society. Lyotard sees both a danger and a possibility in the postmodern rejection of metanarratives.
But, he believes, the postmodern incredulity toward metanarratives has resulted in a new possibility, too, of liberating the creation of narrative meaning from the need to establish legitimating foundations. Philosophers of postmodernism have sought to clarify such a postmodern possibility for the creation of meaning through the development of hermeneutics see Vattimo, Beyond Interpretation , Gary Madison , John D.
Caputo , ; for a creative intervention in postmodern hermeneutics, see Davey In this, hermeneutics places stress on the possibility of interpretive experience to produce new meaning and shifts away from concerns about truth and existence. Vattimo embraces the postmodern possibility to liberate the creation of meaning from any needs for foundation or legitimacy. Vattimo, then, defines interpretive experience not in Gadamerian terms of a conversation that brings something into focus in its being, as it genuinely is.
Research in hermeneutics is perhaps more diverse now than at any other period in the historical movement, and has also begun to expand interest in hermeneutical considerations to contexts such as feminist philosophy see Warnke , comparative philosophy see, for example, Nelson , philosophy of embodiment see, for example, Kearney , and Latin American philosophy see, for example, Vallega While it is impossible to gather all directions of current research in a short article, some further developments have received particular attention.
Hermeneutics, grasped as a historical movement, is typically associated with continental European traditions of thought and the reception of these traditions in the global context. This reception has included contributions to the development of hermeneutics made by noteworthy Anglo-American philosophers. Philosophers associated with the University of Pittsburgh have also taken up and developed themes in hermeneutics. Robert Brandom, for his part, has argued that his inferentialist approach in semantics is able to support major tenets of Gadamerian hermeneutics, thereby suggesting that the traditions of inferentialism and hermeneutics can complement one another see Brandom and ; see also Lafont John McDowell, in his Mind and World , also introduces a notion connected with hermeneutics.
He argues that the question itself is a symptom of naturalism, the idea typical of modern science that immutable laws govern everything in nature. In this, the worry about the place of the spontaneity of reason in nature arises precisely from our reductive conception of nature in the first place. McDowell draws on notions of tradition and formation Bildung in order to clarify this second nature. Hermeneutics, since Heidegger at least, claims a special affinity with practical philosophy. Moreover, Paul Ricoeur has argued that an important test of the universality of hermeneutics is the extension of hermeneutical considerations to the practical sphere.
In this, he clarifies that and how interpretive experience, especially the interpretive experience of narrative, plays an important role no less in practical agency than political critique see Ricoeur, From Text to Action. It is therefore perhaps no surprise that several philosophers have developed approaches and positions in ethical and political philosophy in connection with hermeneutics. Schmidt , and Relatedly, Genevieve Lloyd has invoked hermeneutic motifs to question norms of rationality from a feminist perspective Lloyd Lauren Swayne Barthold has drawn on hermeneutics to develop a feminist approach to social identity and, more recently, to examine the significance of civic dialogue to foster pluralistic, democratic communities see Barthold and Recent research in hermeneutics has seen a rise of interest in the role played in interpretive experience by a number of normative matters.
In this, some argue that the influence of Heidegger and Gadamer over contemporary hermeneutics has led to a neglect of normative considerations in current debate. To be sure, it is possible to defend Heidegger and Gadamer against the charge that their approaches leave too little room for normative considerations. When it comes to Gadamer, attempts to defend his philosophical hermeneutics against charges that it neglects normative concerns have played an important role in debate since Habermas first raised objections against Gadamer.
Recent interest in the role played in interpretive experience by normative considerations, though, has also led to a revival of interest in these matters in hermeneutics before Heidegger. Rudolf Makkreel, in his recent Orientation and Judgment in Hermeneutics , argues for the priority of judgment, and with it, reflection and criticism, in interpretive experience. But, he develops his view of judgment, and the normative considerations involved in it, in reference to Kant and Dilthey in particular.
The new orientation toward realism is characterized, first of all, by a rejection of a common thesis of postmodern and radical constructivism: the position that our interpretations are constitutive of what we otherwise call reality. To this extent, the new interest in realism is compatible with other forms of realism. Yet, new realism opposes not only radical constructivism but also a basic tenet of metaphysical realism: the idea that reality is comprised exclusively of mind-independent things.
One of the most influential approaches of such new-realist opposition against metaphysical realism is found in Gabriel. He makes a distinction between metaphysics and ontology, and argues in his new realist ontology that what we usually associate with mind, namely, our descriptions or interpretations of things, are no less real than what they relate to. Such descriptions or interpretations are rather distinguished by their function, which is to individuate Gabriel , 9— The rise of this orientation toward realism has garnered significant attention in its own right. Especially important for contemporary hermeneutics, however, is that this new orientation toward realism has been an impetus for new developments. At one extreme, the rise of realism has recently led Gianni Vattimo not only to defend his postmodern hermeneutics against realism, but, moreover to develop a polemical critique of the motivations, philosophical and otherwise, to pursue realism.
In this, Vattimo maintains that the rise of realism is motivated, in part, by a conservative reactionism against the consequences of postmodernism. Other developments within hermeneutics have been much more favorable toward the renewed interest in realism. Figal, in his hermeneutical realism, develops his realistic approach principally in terms of the phenomenological problem of appearance. In Gotzmann, A. Louvain: Brill. Bloch, M. Translated by Rhodes, R. Revue Historique. Translated by Hopkins, G. London: Cumberlege. Translated by Putnam, P.
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