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Health \u0026 Medicine: Crash Course Sociology #42
I wondered if sticking premium price tags on education actually benefits the public. It took me a lot of time to bring myself to ask these questions. I sincerely used to think that education functions purely as a force for the collective good, unadulterated by the relentless profit-making machinery that dominates the majority of society. I was naive, which is why I ignored all the signs that higher education pointed exactly in the wrong direction. So I write today from a place of deep concern.
In five different ways, it has mutated into a self-interested business that produces services designed for a privileged clientele. I wonder how long this scam will go on for — how long will it take until it snaps and the entire enterprise falls apart? As I see it, scams must eventually arrive at a breaking point, and public higher education is on the edge of this fissure. Contrary to popular belief, new campus facilities and rising faculty salaries are not the main reasons for this sudden jump. A major reason that tuition fees are skyrocketing is state cutbacks to public education.
To understand why, we need to go back in time. In the s, the Thatcher and Reagan governments in the UK and US applied neoliberal policies that reduced the power of the state, which led to drastic cuts in public services, including publicly funded higher education. Public funding for higher education continues to drop. In , for example, government grants for general operations comprised This year, they comprise only Out of all the countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, an intergovernmental organization focused on building better policies, Canada currently allocates one of the lowest amounts of public funds toward higher education.
To try to cope with these cutbacks, public universities have inflated tuition fees for the newly formed class of student consumers. As tuition fees increased, public pressure for more financial aid did too. U of T claims that increasing financial aid is meant to offset rising tuition fees, but all I see is a vicious cycle emerging: the need to raise funds for financial aid spurs further tuition increases, which in turn spurs the need for more financial aid, and so on.
The same cycle is emerging at other universities across Canada. Many students find that financial aid is not enough to compensate for the tuition boom — and this is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the consequences of withdrawing public funds from public higher education. Sociology professors Claire Polster and Janice Newson have written that public higher education was built on the principles of public collaboration, openness, and free exchange of ideas — principles that are integral to the public interest. But I worry that neoliberalism and market competition have shifted the educational tradition into one that is now more secretive. Hillary Clinton tried that approach as well and thus did her part to put Trump in the White House.
The threat is serious. Some of the reactionary, authoritarian tendencies that condensed around Trump and Trumpism have been festering and growing in American politics at least since the end of World War II. First Barry Goldwater, then Ronald Reagan brought them out of the shadowy underworld populated by such groups as the John Birch Society, the World Anti-Communist League, various McCarthyite tendencies, Klansmen and other white supremacists, America Firsters, ultra-reactionary groups with ties to shadowy international entities like Operation Condor that has specialized in state-centered terror and death squads in Latin America and its equivalent in other regions, Christian Nationalists, anti-Semites and Islamophobes.
Its principal intent is, on the domestic front, to discredit the left by association with a putatively dangerous irrationalism, e. Deep-pocketed reactionaries who play the long game find the construct useful for creating confusion and dissensus among the nominal left, and some nominal leftists can find the fiction financially appealing or, at a minimum, as yet another in the lengthy skein of gimmicks and quick fixes that will deliver us from the need to organize.
Nor am I principally concerned with whether some, all, or most of them qualify as fascists or even a fascist front. The point is that, however taxonomized, they constitute an extremely dangerous and organized political force in the U. In addition to their concerted efforts to restrict voting, Republican-controlled state legislatures have been plotting strategies for attempting to nullify federal laws, passing bills intended to prohibit municipalities from enforcing them. But they are also steps in preparation for seizure of power. Comparison with the shenanigans of Massive Resistance can amplify that point.
Barnett was a dull-witted and small-minded opportunist and political performer. He did this repeatedly, eventually provoking the armed campus riot that drew white supremacist hooligans from several states—including retired Maj. Edwin Walker, a Birchite who ironically had commanded the troops from the st Airborne group that Eisenhower sent to Little Rock in to restore order and enforce the school desegregation plan—and during which federal authorities confiscated a large cache of weapons from cheerleader and later U. The Kennedy administration had had enough of Barnett and sent the 82 nd Airborne to Oxford to put down the insurrection.
Once, in an argument in a Washington, D. That stopped Hitchens in his tracks momentarily and prompted a chuckle. Then my son reminded me that the one exception to that dictum had been Oxford, MS in Barnett, like other segregationist officials, had no strategy beyond aggressive performance of opposition to federal authority; their game plan was theatrical. If left to their own devices, that would no doubt be the limited game of the most ostentatiously vile and imperiously ignorant of the Trumpist operatives in Congress—e. The game is being scripted, and improvised, at a much higher level by more adroit operatives. De facto Gauleiters, such as Sens. And, as their actions have demonstrated, this broad tendency now moves in lockstep from Congress down through state governments.
The ultra-reactionary Federalist Society was founded in by Yale, Harvard, and University of Chicago law students and now has stocked the federal judiciary up to the Supreme Court, including a hefty complement of Catholic fascists. Chamber of Commerce, and the National Federation of Independent Business—all funded by the Koch brothers and other rich reactionaries—have organized at the state level to produce and pass anti-worker, anti-democratic legislation and to secure and fortify Republican control of state governments.
In a recent New Yorker article that should be required reading for anyone who diminishes the threat or clings to the view that neoliberal Democrats are somehow the greater danger for progressive interests, Jane Mayer examines the vast dark money network underwriting the accelerated assault on democratic institutions we face at this moment. That means, among other things, taking advantage of or concocting new issues that both inflame their broader base and permit them to set the terms of national or local political debate. I have no idea how extensive the consciously putschist tendency has been among the right. Nor do I imagine that the likes of Lindsey Graham or Kevin McCarthy had been impelled by radical ideological commitments more elaborate than advancing the immediate interests of the class they represent and suppressing those who might want to do anything else.
Watching Rand Paul doing his best Joe McCarthy impression going after Anthony Fauci brought home to me that Trumpism helped to bring the notion of extra-Constitutional takeover of government in from the fringes of national politics and out from the dark ideological core of the Republican right. Restriction of the franchise to property owners and the rich has been a strain in ultra-right politics across the sweep of the twentieth century and into the twenty-first. That qualifier also underscores the work that race ideology does to provide the illusion of commonality among those identifying with the right.
A couple of stratagems in the ongoing anti-public health panic are worth noting because they echo really old-school reactionary ideology, from before when the fiction of appeal to a popular audience encouraged public politesse. Recall that early in the pandemic, Texas Lt. Nor was he alone in floating that suggestion. Vaccines kind of stand in the way of that. Pandemic denial and opposition to public intervention to address dangers to public health come organically to this element, which has been part of the institutional foundation of ultra-right politics since the late nineteenth century, among them bankrollers of the eugenics movement from its beginnings.
With a startling quickness that bespeaks the depth and breadth of their organizational capacity the Republican right has mobilized an alliance of committed reactionaries, opportunist political operatives, anti-vaxxers, survivalists and other more or less dangerous anti-government hobbyists, internet conspiracists, unhinged psychopaths, militant anticommunists, zealous anti-abortionists and other Christian fanatics, would-be libertarians, gun nuts, unambiguous fascists and ethnonationalists, actual i.
Even the right-wing Catholic bishops have gotten into the act, at least when they can stay off Grindr, defying the Pope in pressing to deny Biden the Sacrament, if not excommunicate him. Notwithstanding their idiosyncratic identities and issues, Trumpism has developed as the umbrella under which they converge, with MAGA as the symbol that condenses all their disparate aspirations.
Votes cast for him were fraudulent by definition because people who voted for him could not be legitimate Americans. This is shades of the high period of disfranchisement in the late nineteenth-century South, when Democrat putschists considered one Republican vote too many. That narrative reinforces castigation of any public intervention as government overreach or even tyranny. The apparent irrationality superficially driving the hysteria stands out and prompts bewilderment and astonishment. We forced our opponents to change their minds. This is shades of the high period of disfranchisement in the late nineteenth-century South, when Democrat putschists considered one Republican vote too many. That narrative reinforces castigation of any public intervention as government overreach or even tyranny.
The apparent irrationality superficially driving the hysteria stands out and prompts bewilderment and astonishment. We forced our opponents to change their minds. At the same time, there is a Potemkin quality to the current GOP-stoked anti-government insurgency. And rates of vaccine acceptance have been increasing even among Republicans. Other poll results vary, but in general a majority even of respondents who identify as Republican indicate support for vaccination.
Right-wing operatives in Congress, on Fox News, the internet and elsewhere are intent on decreasing that support or at a minimum exaggerating the extent of opposition not only among Republicans but in the country at large. They want to sell an image of wide social breakdown and crisis; some of them at least, as I have argued, well may want to provoke general breakdown and crisis, but the reality is that it may not be necessary to succeed in doing so in order to realize a putschist agenda. Continuing to proclaim that the country is on the verge of explosion could help mobilize the Republican vote in and, particularly with the aid of newly imposed voter suppression techniques, all too easily could give the GOP control of both houses of Congress.
From there it would be an easy step to impeaching Biden. A contestable result in the presidential election—and how great would a Democratic margin of victory have to be to preclude the right from contesting the outcome? Roughly a third of Americans apparently still believe that Biden stole the election; among Republicans the percentages are more than twice as high and appear to be rising —could set in motion intervention by a Republican Congress and Judiciary to nullify the apparent result. I will not question whether they believe whatever they need to believe to advance the interests they want to advance. Nonetheless, they are under no pressure to reflect on whether their actions could yield hundreds of thousands more deaths from COVID, or the longer-term impacts of their resistance to climate science or opposition to infrastructure spending because the time horizon impelling them is no longer than one to three years.
I know that many liberals, and not a few leftists, will dismiss this account as wildly hyperbolic. It always seems most reasonable to project the future as a straight-line extrapolation from the recent past and present; inertia and path dependence are powerful forces. My objective is to indicate dangerous, opportunistic tendencies and dynamics at work in this political moment which I think liberals and whatever counts as a left in the United States have been underestimating or, worse, dismissing entirely.
I am hardly alone in suggesting that we may have come to a significant crossroad. People with much greater faith in and commitment to contemporary capitalism than I have, and who have much more sophisticated knowledge of its intricate inner dynamics, also have expressed that view, though in somewhat different terms and in relation to different political concerns. He elaborated further on the stagnationist tendency in the national economy in a Brookings paper. BlackRock, Inc. How could such an order not slide into the throes of legitimation crisis? Insulation of policy processes as much as possible from popular oversight—at local, national, and international levels—is at the heart of neoliberal accumulation. As Walter Benn Michaels and I have observed repeatedly, earnest institutional and individual commitment to an anti-disparitarian ideal of justice is entirely compatible with support for a society that becomes ever more sharply class-skewed and unequal in the aggregate.
One argument that the reactionary putschist tendency cannot succeed rests on the fact that the capitalist class in the U. We can take some reassurance in that fact, although one could also argue that the slow but steady de-democratization of political decision-making that is neoliberalization has been the equivalent of a quiet coup itself. And with or without conscious intent, full-throated ruling class embrace and advocacy of anti-disparitarianism also was a convenient, and conveniently sanctimonious, counter to social-democratic critiques of inequality.
Where does this analysis leave us? What is there for leftists to do? Samir Sonti, in an article in the forthcoming issue of the Socialist Register , examines Bidenism and its possibilities and limitations in a careful and sober way and from a perspective similar to that which I proposed here. Biden has committed to restoring labor rights and has openly encouraged unionization. That is already an improvement on the record of the three previous Democratic administrations—of Carter, Clinton, and Obama—that promised pro-labor reform and reneged. Biden has also expressed commitment to a public good approach to government, as is indicated, among other places, in his infrastructure plans.
Sonti cautions, however, that what the administration does on the infrastructure front is likely to be considerably less than is needed. To that extent even triumphant Bidenism would likely reset the political-economic moment to a contemporary equivalent of U. But all the possibilities Biden might open hinge on holding and increasing the Democratic congressional majorities in the mid-term elections. We have to get past if we are to try to articulate and organize popularly around an agenda, and vision, that speak to addressing the needs, concerns, fears, and anxieties of the working-class.
The only hope for thwarting that tendency is to concentrate our efforts on formulating, organizing around, and agitating for an ensemble of policies that reinvigorate the notion of government in the public good, which has been a casualty of more than four decades of bipartisan neoliberalism.After a quick meal, customers wad up Neoliberalization In Health Care paper wrappers Neoliberalization In Health Care toss them into garbage cans. Those who believe in symbolic interactionism perceive culture as highly dynamic and fluid, as it is dependent on Neoliberalization In Health Care meaning is interpreted and Neoliberalization In Health Care individuals interact when Neoliberalization In Health Care these meanings. In the wake is Yuriko Koike, hiding in the shadows Lyndon B Johnsons Speech Analysis her time. Neoliberalization In Health Care bit of having yer cake and eating it, if you ask me. Class based families The Peter Principle Analysis the lower class who are the poor in the society.