① What Caused Hurricane Irma

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What Caused Hurricane Irma



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Hurricane Irma devastates the Caribbean - World

The Dolphins left early for their road game against the Los Angeles Chargers. Petersburg to Citi Field in Queens. Hurricane Irma's path was such that its impact was both far-reaching and devastating, with landfalls in Antigua and Barbuda , Saint Martin , the Bahamas , Cuba , and the United States, all at major hurricane intensity. Furthermore, the size of the storm system meant that destruction was prevalent even in territories well removed from landfall occurrences. Irma is the second-costliest Caribbean hurricane on record, after Maria. A total of three storm-related deaths were reported on the island.

In addition to the catastrophic impact on Barbuda's human residents, concern turned to the storm's effects on the island's wildlife. The island's only endemic bird, the near-threatened Barbuda warbler , numbered less than 2, individuals prior to the hurricane. It is unknown if the warbler survived the hurricane or its aftermath. Barbuda's Codrington Lagoon , home to the largest colony of magnificent frigatebirds in the Caribbean, with an estimated 2, nesting pairs, was also inundated by the storm surge.

Remaining just outside of Irma's strongest windfield, Antigua sustained less severe damage, in the form of leveled roofs and fences, downed power poles and lines, and uprooted trees. Some street flooding also took place in low-lying areas. On the morning of September 6, Irma's center crossed the island of Saint Martin while the storm was at peak intensity, sweeping away entire structures, submerging roads and cars, and triggering an island-wide blackout. On the French side of Saint-Martin , entire marinas around Marigot were left in ruins, littered with the stranded remnants of boats that had smashed into each other.

Another hotel lost nearly all of its ground floor. A similar situation unfolded in Sint Maarten , Saint Martin's Dutch half, as intense winds ripped through buildings and lifted vehicles aloft "as if they were matches". Describing the extent of the destruction, one local compared it to "a bomb that burned all vegetation," while another said that it were as if the hurricane had effectively "erased the island from the map".

The island's fire station was inundated with up to 6. This total covered private property such as homes, vehicles and businesses including lost revenue ; the extent of the damage to infrastructural and public facilities remains undetermined. Nonetheless, this made Irma one of the costliest natural disasters to hit the French Republic in 50 years. Many homes and schools were destroyed, and the island's only hospital was badly damaged. In The Valley , the island's capital, the hurricane blew out the windows of government buildings. Rough seas inflicted heavy damage upon several bays and harbors, and a seaside restaurant was completely eradicated. Large swells ahead of Irma washed ashore debris and sea life in Castries , Saint Lucia, blocking some roads.

Seaside roads were inundated with water. Trees were also destroyed. Several houses were damaged. Overall damage was limited to external parts of houses and trees that were blown onto roads and three unmanned ships wrecked by rough seas. Saint Kitts and Nevis endured similar conditions to other islands. Blustery rainstorms triggered scattered power outages and disabled the island's water system, but per the International Red Cross , the islands were spared the level of destruction seen elsewhere.

On Saba, the hurricane also defoliated trees and injured a few people. Damage in the British Virgin Islands was extensive. Numerous buildings and roads were destroyed on the island of Tortola , which bore the brunt of the hurricane's core. Four people were confirmed dead. Satellite images revealed many of the island's residential zones had been left in ruins. Most homes and businesses were destroyed on the island of Jost Van Dyke , the smallest of the B. Irma's effects in the U. Virgin Islands were most profound on Saint Thomas , where at least 12 inches mm of rain fell, and on Saint John.

Saint Thomas island suffered widespread structural damage, including to its police station and airport. Patients from the fourth and third floors of Charlotte Amalie 's hospital had to be relocated to lower floors due to flooding from roof leaks. Three deaths were attributed to Irma on the island. On nearby Saint Croix , there were communication issues and some damage to the infrastructure. Due to its normal reliance on electricity from Saint Thomas, the island was left without power. The hurricane passed north of Puerto Rico , but still caused significant damage to the United States territory.

Along the coast, a tide gauge observed waves up to 1. The most severely affected areas included the offshore islands of Culebra and Vieques , as well as the northeastern, northern, and mountainous portions of the main island. On Culebra, the island suffered an almost complete loss of electrical and water services. At least 30 homes on the island were destroyed, while about 30 other experienced substantial damage. High winds also toppled a number of trees.

The only telecommunications tower on Culebra sustained damage, cutting off outside communications for several hours. At least , customers lost water services. Debris, mostly fallen trees, blocked at least 72 roads. Three nearby fishermen were burned by the same lightning strike, but survived. Although spared a direct hit, both the Dominican Republic and Haiti were affected by high winds and heavy rains. In the Dominican Republic, the fishing community of Nagua sustained damage from waves that destroyed homes.

While the eye passed just south of the main islands, crossing over South Caicos and the Ambergris Cays , the most powerful winds on the northern side of the eye swept all of the islands for more than two hours. Communications infrastructure was destroyed. On September 8, Minister of Infrastructure Goldray Ewing confirmed that damage to Providenciales was extensive, with the northwestern neighborhood of Blue Hill being "gone". In the Bahamas , the eye of the storm passed over Duncan Town, the major settlement of the Ragged Islands chain , on September 8. Damages were largely confined to the southern islands starting the morning of September 8. On Mayaguana and Great Inagua , downed power lines knocked out communications.

The Morton Salt Company 's signature production facility, one of the major employers in the country, experienced millions of dollars in damages. While Irma was making landfall in Florida, the ocean was drawn away from some western shorelines of the Bahamas due to strong easterly winds. Wave heights at Cayo Romano exceeded 26 ft 7. Storm surge penetrated as far as 1. Multiple locations on the island observed at least 10 in mm of rainfall, with a peak total of A total of , homes experienced some degree of damage, of which 14, were destroyed; approximately 1. Irma damaged or destroyed health facilities and 2, schools. Approximately 3. About mi km of roads were damaged. Crops also suffered extensively, with nearly , acres 95, ha affected by the storm.

Flooding worsened as the hurricane moved west, pushing the storm surge along to the regions around Havana. Hurricane Irma affected multiple states in the South, especially Florida. Except for the Florida Keys, the total damage Irma caused was not as great as government officials and forecasters had warned. Irma weakened after making landfall in Cuba, but strengthened back into a Category 4 prior to hitting the Keys.

The Florida Keys suffered the worst of the damage in the United States. After surveying the aftermath of Irma, Florida governor Rick Scott said "I thought we would see more damage" [on the mainland] but said "he witnessed devastation in the Keys". At the time, Irma was the fourth costliest tropical cyclone in the United States, behind hurricanes Sandy in , Harvey earlier that year, and Katrina in However, later in September , Hurricane Maria became the third costliest United States tropical cyclone, causing Irma to fall to the fifth costliest.

At least 92 people, 10 directly and 82 indirectly, died throughout the United States in relation to Irma: 84 in Florida, 3 in Georgia, 3 in South Carolina, and 2 in North Carolina. Irma struck the state less than two weeks after Potential Tropical Cyclone Ten had caused the worst flooding seen in western Florida in 20 years, which further worsened the impacts in the region. Johns River and its tributaries. Throughout Florida, at least 84 people died in storm-related incidents.

The patients died from sweltering heat worsened by the lack of air conditioning. Johns , and Volusia counties. With Irma making landfall in Monroe County as a Category 4 hurricane, the Florida Keys were hardest hit area in the state. On Big Pine Key , one of the most devastated islands, homes received minor impact, homes received major impact, and homes were completely destroyed. Overall in Monroe County, 27, homes experienced some degree of damage, including 1, homes being destroyed, 2, homes receiving major damage, and 5, suffering minor damage.

After devastating the Keys, the storm then struck Collier County as a Category 3 hurricane. Several communities in the county suffered extensive damage, especially along the coast. Impact in much of the Miami metropolitan area was generally limited to extensive tree and fence damage, as well as widespread power outages. Storm surge caused coastal flooding from Homestead to Downtown Miami , as well as in portions of Miami Beach. Strong winds and heavy rainfall in Central Florida left some wind damage and flooding, necessitating evacuations and rescues, including more than people in Orlo Vista after hundreds of homes were flooded.

Additionally, eight tornadoes touched down in Brevard County , all of which caused damage. Along much of the Gulf Coast of Florida, to the north of where Irma made landfall, negative storm surges were observed, with water retracting rather than pushing inland, causing little coastal flooding. Johns counties. In Duval County, the St. Johns River crested at heights that exceeded records set during Hurricane Dora in Portions of Jacksonville experienced flooding, particularly the downtown area and the Riverside and San Marco neighborhoods, with about people rescued in those sections of the city.

Water reached about 5 ft 1. In St. Johns County, storm surge left extensive damage to oceanfront properties in Ponte Vedra Beach and Vilano Beach , with several becoming uninhabitable. Augustine 's historic district were flooded due to storm surge from the Matanzas River. Johns River, with record high crests at several locations along the former. A total of homes were destroyed, were inflicted major damage, and received minor damage. Three deaths were reported in Georgia due to falling trees and debris, along with widespread wind damage and power outages throughout the state primarily due to fallen trees. Simons Island the storm surge caused extensive flooding. In Charleston, South Carolina , the third highest storm surge on record was recorded, reaching a height of approximately 10 ft 3 m.

Light damage occurred in other areas, including Tennessee. In the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Irma's path through the West Indies and Caribbean, the devastation to roads, harbors and airports significantly impeded the transportation and distribution of relief supplies. Foreign countries moved to provide much of the initial aid. The British, Dutch, French, and United States governments sent warships and planes with supplies and manpower to the region. Some of the affected countries and territories also offered assistance to each other. The U. In response to Hurricane Jose's approach, the Government of Antigua and Barbuda issued a mandatory evacuation on September 9 for any remaining residents on Barbuda. A Miami cargo plane landed on Antigua later that day, carrying over 60 tons , lbs of relief supplies for the displaced storm victims—including bottled water, canned food and power generators.

RFA Mounts Bay stationed itself near Anguilla and provided support and relief work to the island with its helicopters and 40 marines and army engineers. The British government also drafted 2 members of the UK police calibre into the region on September 10, and 53 police officers were drafted from RAF Brize Norton to the affected British Overseas Territories on September 15 to help maintain order.

By September 12, the Department for International Development had delivered more than 40 tonnes of aid into the region, including into Turks and Caicos, and 1, UK military troops were deployed in the region as part of relief efforts. By September 15, the United Kingdom had over 70 military personnel and 4 police officers in Anguilla and had delivered 15 tonnes of aid to the island. By the afternoon of September 9, Bahamas Power and Light Company had dispatched crews across the archipelago to repair infrastructure damage. The southernmost islands, which were most severely affected by Irma's eye, remained largely inaccessible for days. The worst devastation occurred on Ragged Island , over which Irma's eye had directly passed.

After days of the National Emergency Management Agency not being able to physically reach the island, officials were finally able to inspect it; they promptly declared it uninhabitable. On Grand Bahama and Bimini , where tornadoes associated with Irma touched down on September 10, more than people were left displaced. Infrastructure damage included docks, parks, and the power system. Aside from tangible asset losses, Irma brought significant economic damages. International freight shipping was projected to be offline for a week, and costs for rebuilding supplies were inflated due to demand in the U.

Swollen rivers contributed to worsening flooding in the days after the storm system left, resulting in additional evacuations. Officials resorted to using inflatable rafts to access affected areas. The national electrical infrastructure was said to be extensively damaged. In the Dominican Republic, flooding worsened following Irma's departure, leading the number of displaced persons to increase to more than 24, by September 8.

President Danilo Medina ordered further evacuations due to at-risk dams, while the government banned swimming in rivers and ordered boats kept in port. In Haiti, officials stated that losses were greater than they could have been since people largely did not heed early preparation and evacuation warnings. One man died trying to cross a flooded river; another went missing and 17 were injured. United Nations peacekeepers from Brazil were able to gain access to the flooded northwest region to provide urgent aid, but non-governmental organizations and Haitian economists warned that the estimated 30, victims would need longer-term assistance as well.

Prime Minister Jack Guy Lafontant appointed a government commission to address Irma's effects, with Action Against Hunger in charge of humanitarian coordination. In the USVI, residents and tourists alike were described as being in a state of traumatic shock. Four additional warships, some of which had already been on their way to Texas to assist with Hurricane Harvey relief, were redirected to the region. Norwegian Cruise Lines and Royal Caribbean Cruise Line agreed to transport tourists to Florida, contingent upon port availability following the state's own experience with Irma.

On Saint John, described as "perhaps the site of Irma's worst devastation on American soil," it took six days for an active-theater disaster zone to be established, leading to criticism of the U. John in the middle of October By September 9, more than one million Puerto Ricans were still without power, tens of thousands were without water, and several thousand were still in shelters. Hospitals were operating on generator power. The government was struggling to establish contact with the islands of Culebra and Vieques.

Airlifts had brought more than 50 patients to Puerto Rico. Five months after Irma, two-thirds of the hospital beds on Saint Thomas were still unavailable, due to extensive physical damage and staffing shortages. The following day, the Dutch military was able to airlift dialysis patients off the island while also dropping leaflets to warn islanders about the rapidly approaching Hurricane Jose. French President Emmanuel Macron followed this announcement by stating his intentions to visit the French part of the island on September 12 in order to bring aid supplies.

On both sides of Saint Martin, desperate conditions combined with food and water shortages in Irma's aftermath led to reports of violence, scavenging, and theft. In response, the French government increased its troop deployment to 2, and the Dutch government sent more than military and police personnel. On September 7 and 9, equipment and personnel were flown from France to Guadeloupe and Martinique. Sporadic reports of looting and burglaries at several Miami Metro area businesses occurred with the theft of non-essential items such as sports apparel and athletic shoes during the height of the storm.

The Overseas Highway remained closed while authorities assessed the integrity of the 42 bridges along the route. On September 12, some residents were allowed to return into the Keys as far as Islamorada. Although road damage blocked entry any farther than Islamorada, bridges had been inspected and found safe to Sugarloaf Key. Due mainly to the widespread loss of power, cell phone service was also reduced after battery backup power for cell phone towers ran out and backup generators ran out of fuel. NOAA released map-format aerial reconnaissance image data of damage from the storm. The imagery featured several areas of Florida: including the Florida Keys, the southwest coast of Florida from Marco Island to Punta Gorda, much of the northeast coast of Florida, and portions of the Jacksonville area.

Portions of the Georgia and South Carolina coasts were also photographed. In the days after the hurricane, due to the heavy rainfall, numerous rivers had flooded, including residential areas. A large concern from flooding is contamination because people become exposed to dirty floodwaters and the potential for contaminated water to enter the local water supply is significant. One example of an illness that can enter the water supply is leptospirosis , which is rat urine carries into the floodwaters. Untreated exposure to leptospirosis can cause kidney damage, meningitis , and liver failure. Noroviruses and other infections are also a risk. Following Irma's passage, a 15 ft 4. The state has removed the canoe for examination and safe keeping.

The leisure and hospitality industries were especially hard hit, losing , jobs in September. Irma set multiple records for intensity, especially at easterly longitudes, time spent at such an intensity, and its intensity at landfall. This ties it with Hurricane Mitch of and Hurricane Rita of as the sixth-strongest Atlantic hurricane by wind speed. Only the San Ciriaco hurricane and Hurricane Ivan in achieved higher values. In addition, Irma is only the second hurricane on record to make landfall in Cuba at Category 5 intensity, with the other being a hurricane in In the span of two weeks, two Category 4 hurricanes— Harvey and Irma—struck the continental United States, the first time on record two Atlantic tropical cyclones of such strength made landfall on the country in the same hurricane season.

The other two instances were the Great Charleston and Cheniere Caminada hurricanes in , and hurricanes Ivan and Jeanne in On April 11, , at the 40th session of the RA IV hurricane committee, the World Meteorological Organization retired the name Irma from its rotating naming lists, due to the extensive amount of damage and loss of life it caused in the northeastern Caribbean and the United States, particularly in Florida, and it will never again be used for another Atlantic hurricane. It will be replaced with Idalia for the Atlantic hurricane season.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Category 5 Atlantic hurricane in This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of For other storms of the same name, see List of storms named Irma. Hurricane Irma near peak intensity approaching the Leeward Islands on September 5. Main article: Meteorological history of Hurricane Irma. Play media. Main article: Effects of Hurricane Irma in Florida. See also: List of retired Atlantic hurricane names. Tropical cyclones portal Caribbean portal Cuba portal United States portal. Virgin Islands, and 3 indirect deaths in Puerto Rico. Tropical storms and hurricanes were not named before the year United States National Hurricane Center. May 25, Landsea June 2, In Neal M. Dorst ed.

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WHNT News The Sun News. Bill Haslam issues executive order for Irma evacuees". News 9 ABC News. September 10, Retrieved January 15, Sporting News. Carolina League. Minor League Baseball. San Francisco Deltas Match Postponed". Miami FC. Central Florida canceled". Portland Press Herald. CBS Sports. Georgia Southern Athletics. Bloomberg News. Retrieved September 5, — via www. Hurricane Irma: Report No. Archived from the original PDF on September 9, Tribune Archived from the original on February 14, Retrieved February 13, Caribbean Development Bank. March 29, Archived from the original on April 29, Retrieved April 1, Retrieved September 12, Archived from the original on September 20, Even though Andrew was a small tropical cyclone for most of its lifespan, it caused extreme damage, especially in the Bahamas, Florida, and Louisiana.

The vast majority of the damage was as a result of extremely high winds, although a few tornadoes spawned by Andrew caused considerable damage in Louisiana. Throughout the areas affected, almost , people were left homeless. Outside of the Bahamas, Florida, and Louisiana, effects were widespread, although damage was minimal. On Current Island, the hurricane destroyed 24 of the 30 houses. Andrew produced several tornadoes in the area.

Additionally, the storm caused severe damage to the sectors of transport, communications, water, sanitation, agriculture, and fishing. It was later noted that if Andrew had been slightly larger or had made landfall a few miles further north, it would have significantly affected Miami and Fort Lauderdale , which would have resulted in an even higher damage and death toll. Tides were generally between 4 to 6 ft 1. Storm surge on the west coast was widespread but generally light, with a peak height of 6 ft 1. Strong winds from the storm were confined to a relatively small area, stretching from Key Largo to the Miami Beach area. Several other anemometers measuring the highest wind speeds on land were destroyed or failed.

Tropical storm force winds reached as far north as West Palm Beach. Rainfall was generally light, possibly as a result of the storm's relatively fast movement. Heavy rainfall in other areas was sporadic, with precipitation reported as far north as Central Florida. Although effects from Andrew were catastrophic, the extent of damage was limited mainly from Kendall to Key Largo due to the small wind field of the storm. Andrew left at least 40 deaths in the county, 15 direct and 25 indirect. Elsewhere, effects were relatively minimal, except in Broward, Monroe, and Collier counties. In Broward County, on the north side of the storm's path, damage in several municipalities was primarily limited to downed trees, several of which fell onto roads and power lines.

In Pembroke Park , one of the worst affected cities in the county, approximately mobile homes were damaged. Storm surge left coastal flooding in some areas, especially along state roads A1A and Strong winds damaged billboards, awnings, commercial signs, several boats, planes, trees, [32] and 1, homes, with of those becoming uninhabitable. Many boats were damaged or destroyed by the rough seas and strong winds. As it moved ashore, the hurricane produced storm tides of at least 8 ft 2.

Along the Louisiana coastline, damages largely resembled those of a Category 2 hurricane. Damage was heaviest in St. Mary Parish , about 32 mi 51 km east of where Andrew made landfall. Berwick High School , sheltering about 2, people, was deroofed during the storm. Generally, single-family homes fared well, with most losing only roofing shingles, though others suffered severe damage after large trees fell on them. In Cypremort Point State Park , several mobile homes were destroyed.

Throughout the parish, 1, dwellings were destroyed, 2, were severely damaged, and 4, others were impacted to a minor degree. Property damage alone in St. Iberia Parish was also among the most severely impacted parishes. Two schools collectively sheltering about 3, people in Jeanerette and New Iberia lost their roofs. One death occurred in the parish due to electrocution. A total of residences were demolished, 2, others were extensively damaged, and 3, others were inflicted with minor damage. While Andrew was entering the Gulf of Mexico, oil companies evacuated hundreds of employees from offshore drilling platforms.

Additionally, 83 pipeline segments suffered damage to some degree. As Andrew moved ashore in Louisiana, its outer fringes produced a storm tide of about 1. Funnel clouds were observed near the path of the storm, [92] along with 26 tornadoes. One tornado in Kemper County destroyed a mobile home, while another twister in Lauderdale County demolished a mobile home, damaged five other dwellings, and injured four people. In Alabama, precipitation amounts in the state peaked at 4. The most damaging tornado was spawned in Elmore County and moved from an area northeast of Montgomery to the south of Wetumpka and briefly lifted during its 0.

The tornado destroyed 2 homes and damaged 18 homes, 1 mobile home, 2 barns, and 1 vehicle. One person was injured by the twister. Tropical storm force wind gusts and damaging tornadoes extended eastward into Georgia. Several counties in the northwest and west-central portions of the state reported downed trees and tree limbs and fallen power lines, causing scattered power outages, but structural damage was generally minor. In Carroll County , several dwellings and barns were damaged, with one mobile home destroyed. At the Columbus Metropolitan Airport , buildings, billboards, and signs were damaged. Additionally, a tornado in Floyd County near Rome snapped and uprooted several trees, damaged several fences and homes, and flipped over a trailer, tossing it on top of four cars.

Similarly, in North Carolina , thunderstorm winds toppled trees and power lines at a number of locations in the mountainous areas of the state, especially in Avery County. Rainfall from Andrew spread across the southeastern United States along the Appalachian Mountains corridor; totals of over 5 in mm were reported where Georgia and South Carolina meet North Carolina. The remnants of Andrew also spawned several tornadoes in Maryland. A tornado in Howard County damaged several homes, some extensively. The twister also tossed and wrecked a recreational vehicle and its trailer, downed trees, and flattened cornfields.

The name Andrew will never be used for another Atlantic hurricane again. Initially, the Bahamas National Disaster Coordinator believed that foreign aid was not required, but shortly after the storm, the Government of the United Kingdom began distributing blankets, food, ice, and water. HMS Cardiff , a Royal Navy Type 42 destroyer , was the operational guard ship at the time and assisted in relief operations in and around the Gregorytown area. The American Red Cross delivered tents, rolls of plastic sheeting, and 1, cots. However, trees and vegetation were expected to take years to recover. After assessing the devastation in Florida and Louisiana, U.

President George H. The bill, which was the most costly disaster aid package at the time, was passed by Congress as House Resolution on September 18, [] and signed into law by President Bush on September Even a month prior to Andrew, the House Committee on Appropriations — which oversees the budget for FEMA — released a report calling the agency a "political dumping ground" and a "turkey farm" due to its "weak, inexperienced leaders". Congressman S. William Green of New York , a member of the Appropriations Committee, stated that he believed the agency learned little from its botched response to Hurricane Hugo in However, Green also criticized local officials for expecting "them [FEMA] to come and run the whole show". Some FEMA officials responded that it was impossible to respond as they had been requested while also continuing to provide aid for the Los Angeles riots.

FEMA spokesman Grant Peterson stated, "24 hours is not reasonable to expect to have all the resources of the federal government landing in the middle of a disaster. Crime, especially looting and theft, rose sharply in the areas south of Miami immediately after Andrew. Reports indicate that merchandise was stolen at damaged or destroyed shopping centers in southern Dade County.

Additionally, looting occurred in neighborhoods severely affected by the storm, even in homes where few possessions remained. They keep saying we're going to get supplies. For God's sake, where are they? The storm struck Florida in the midst of presidential election campaign. However, Chiles was able to recover prior to the gubernatorial election. In the aftermath of the storm, extensive psychological effects were documented. Difficulty during clean-up and recovery led to increased divorce rates and a spike in posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD. The cases of PTSD primarily impacted children.

Unsalvageable buildings were demolished. Reconstruction then began on a Florida Air National Guard tower, air traffic control tower, and maintenance hangars. Next, the rebuilding of communications, medical, security facility, vehicle maintenance, and wing headquarters buildings began. Despite this, the Cleveland Indians , fearing the relocation of their more affluent fans, moved their spring training location to Chain of Lakes Park in Winter Haven. Additionally, of the homes destroyed or severely damaged throughout Dade County, 36, had been restored by July More than , policyholders in South Florida lost coverage after 11 insurance companies went bankrupt, caused by more than , insurance claims filed.

This led the Florida Legislature to create new entities, such as the Joint Underwriting Association, the Florida Windstorm Underwriting Association, and the Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund, in an effort to restore adequate insurance capacity. On the roof of some homes, the concrete tiles were glued to felt paper, which could easily be ripped by straight line winds. At houses with shingled roofs, it was found that some of the shingles were stapled perpendicular to the long axis, also allowing them to be torn away.

After the tiles or shingles were peeled off, the plywood and prefabricated trusses were exposed to the weather. Eventually, the plywood and the trusses suffered structural failure, leading to roof collapses. In July , Governor Chiles established the Florida Building Codes Study Commission, with the purpose of assessing the building codes at the time, as well as enacting improvements and reform to the system. The commission study indicated that building codes and regulations were developed, amended, and administered by over local jurisdictions and state agencies. After hurricanes Charley , Frances , Ivan , and Jeanne in , a study conducted by the University of Florida in the following year noted that "Homes built under the new Florida Building Code that became effective in sustained less damage on average than those built between and The hurricane also transformed the demographics of Dade County.

A migration of mostly White families northward to Broward and Palm Beach County was ongoing, but accelerated after Andrew. During the storm, a facility housing Burmese pythons was destroyed, allowing many of them to escape into the Everglades. Although Burmese pythons — native to Southeast Asia — had been sighted in Everglades National Park since the s, the destruction of this facility contributed significantly to the establishment of breeding populations in Florida.

Due to rapid reproduction and ability to prey on many species, [] the population of Burmese pythons exploded, with possibly as many as , in the Everglades alone. On August 26, George H. Bush toured devastated areas of Louisiana with Governor Edwin Edwards. After his visit to Louisiana, President Bush declared only Terrebonne Parish as a disaster area, [87] but later included 34 other parishes under this declaration. These centers allowed residents to submit applications for aid. In the first few days following the storm, Louisiana National Guard members and local residents worked to remove debris such as downed trees, roofing shingles, and torn aluminum siding.

The state National Guard also dispatched water purification units and tanks with filled potable water. In early September, officials announced that 1, mobile homes, homes, and apartments would become available to residents whose dwellings became uninhabitable. Media related to Hurricane Andrew at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Category 5 Atlantic hurricane in Hurricane Andrew at peak intensity near the Bahamas on August Main article: Meteorological history of Hurricane Andrew. Main article: Effects of Hurricane Andrew in Florida. Tropical cyclones portal Florida portal. For example, several of the victims died of a heart attack induced by the storm.

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