❀❀❀ Informative Speech On Snow Leopards

Thursday, September 30, 2021 11:05:11 PM

Informative Speech On Snow Leopards

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Snow Leopards - 101 Facts - National Geographic Wild UK

There is a forgotten continent in this story. With many sovereignty claims in the region, there is a chance that conflict will be the outcome. It is a cruel irony that much of the science that has enabled awareness of climate change and allowed glimpses of past climates has come through the sterling efforts of scientists working in state institutions β€” the British Antarctic Survey for example, whose presence in Antarctica is in large part funded to underline imperial claims over a continent true conquest and domestication can only come through massive climate change In the meantime the seas of the Far South β€” especially around the disputed Falkland Islands β€” are increasingly party to oil prospecting.

The peoples, the wildness, were to be made invisible, unbearable. If perceived at all, they were seen, correctly, as obstacles to progress. In the Far North, as in colonies generally, much of the land is already peopled and from a wider perspective, animaled. There are wonders in the tundra that civilisation must lay to waste in the cause of emptying and occupation. In his beautiful exploration of the Arctic, naturalist Barry Lopez describes lands he loves. The Arctic, overall, has the classic lines of a desert landscape: spare, balanced, extended, and quiet The apparent monotony of the land is relieved, however, by the weather systems moving through, and by the activities of animals, particularly of birds and caribou. And because so much of the country stands revealed, and because sunlight passing through the dustless air renders its edges with such unusual sharpness, animals linger before the eye.

And their presence is vivid. Like other landscapes that initially appear barren, arctic tundra can open suddenly, like the corolla of a flower, when any intimacy with it is sought. One begins to notice spots of brilliant red, orange, and green, for example, among the monotonic browns of a tundra tussock. A wolf spider lunges at a glistening beetle. A shred of musk ox wool lies inert in the lavender blooms of saxifrage The wealth of biological detail on the tundra dispels any feeling that the land is empty; and its likeness to a stage suggests impending events. You are afforded the companionship of birds, which follow after you. They know you are an animal; sooner or later you will turn up something to eat. Sandpipers scatter before you, screaming tuituek, an Eskimo name for them.

Coming awkwardly down a scree slope of frost-riven limestone you make a glass-tinkling clatter β€” and at a distance a tundra grizzly rises on its hind legs to study you; the dish-shaped paws of its front legs deathly still The depression it engenders, because so much of it seems a heedless imposition on the land and on the people, a rude invasion, can lead one to despair. The present scale of industrial invasion is merely a portent of the coming ecocide engendered, as the high latitudes warm, by the peppering of the Far North with more cities, roads, installations, fields and factories.

This process will also be one of attempted genocide. Herders such as some of the Sami [] of Lapland and indigenous of Siberia will likely find their homelands increasingly fragmented and polluted whilst those communities living on resource rich land will face eradication β€” either by simple dispossession or by assimilation into the industrial culture. In most, however, where aboriginal communities are minorities there will be familiar patterns of repression and resistance. Tales of dispossession and destruction are many, yet so is resistance.

For example, despite few resources, some of the Siberian tribes have fervently opposed the expansion of gas and oil infrastructure on their traditional lands. In one action a hundred Nivkh, Evenk and Ulita blocked roads with their reindeer for three days against new oil and gas pipelines. While there have been β€” and will be β€” victories in the battle to stop the northern spread of empire and its infrastructure, even the most resolute peoples cannot halt climate change itself.

Indigenous peoples report that lives, and the survivability of life-ways, are already being affected. It puts a lot of stress and fear into our communities. On a bright day on a storm tossed cape I walked with a friend surrounded by forest, waves, osprey, and orcas. Far from any road or village, the place felt pristine, but amongst the trees were the rotting remains of a school.

Rusting farm implements littered the undergrowth and former fields were now the hunting grounds of cougar. Remoteness from markets, the illogic of politics, and land unsuited to colonisation by an imported model had led to the evacuation of this coast. It reminded me that despite the wishes of those who plan worlds, settlement sometimes fails and the wild wins. This will continue to be true. Who will populate these new lands?

Physical landscapes and the social terrains of struggle frame what we think is possible and thus what we do. In Nineteenth and early Twentieth Century North America, Individualist Anarchism especially that influenced by Henry David Thoreau was framed directly by the idea and existence of frontiers and thus the real ability to build some level of autonomy and self-sufficiency β€” admittedly on stolen land! We can expect the opening up of new lands within Europe and North America to have a significant impact on both those who wish to desert civilisation as well as those who wish to expand it.

In the UAE desert migrant workers live in horrific conditions and are bussed in and out of Dubai daily to build the new super city. They have no rights of citizenship, no rights to stay beyond a fixed term contract, almost no spouses or right to marry or co-habit , families rarely exist, no official unionisation. In Siberia , Chinese workers cross the border in seasonal migration every summer to work the new fields. So there will be lives of slavery as well as liberty on the new frontiers and with worsening prospects in much of the warming world and the promise of hard currency many will choose them.

Readers with anarcho-syndicalist leanings may notice the striking similarity of such situations with that of the logging and mining camps that were the battlegrounds of the Wobblies. Culturally divided and without recourse to legal unions and other organs of social democracy, militant informal syndicalism could arise in the New North, possibly even informed by Anarchism. It, too, possessed major cities fuelled by foreign immigration, with a vast, inhospitable frontier distant from the major urban cores.

Its deserts, like Arctic tundra, were harsh, dangerous, and ecologically fragile. It, too, had rich resource endowments of metals and hydrocarbons. It, too, was not really an empty frontier but already occupied by aboriginal peoples who had been living there for millennia. In some places it can be resisted, and successfully. In others the hubris of settlement will simply fail. In many places its very expansion brings possibilities for those who would live in new openings or in old, but warmer, worlds of the gyrfalcon. In humanity passed a significant milestone β€” more of our species now live in cities than outside of them. It could be the glimmering glass domes of sci-fi fantasy, the putrid waters of contemporary Makoko [] or the jungle-immersed abandoned avenues of Mayan cities.

In all likelihood it leads in the direction of all three, and others. One suspects no one knows what the present situation is, never mind where it is headed. As Mike Davis puts it;. Very large cities β€” those with a global, not just regional, environmental footprint β€” are thus the most dramatic end-product, in more than one sense, of human cultural evolution in the Holocene. Presumably they should be the subject of the most urgent and encompassing scientific inquiry. They are not. We know more about rainforest ecology than urban ecology. The rate of change is staggering.

For illustration take mega-cities, those with more than 10 million citizens. While there were none in , by the mid s there were three mega-cities, and between then and the number grew to nineteen, with the total expected to rise to twenty seven by As Hans Roeleing has pointed out, the planet is often seen as divided between:. Such a simplistic picture always obscured class, cultural and regional differences but there was some truth to it. Not anymore. The changes in life expectancy and family size world-wide, are just the most obvious changes. Alongside them are huge transformations in general health both good and bad , [] child programming and the increasing degree of the commodification of social relations.

Yet even on a planet where road traffic accidents now kill similar numbers of people as malaria, the old picture still persists. On the positive side, many people will at least have longer lives to experience the possibility of love as well as inevitable social dislocation and widening class inequality. Those that see these transformations as magically leading the species towards a convergence based on where these trends led the West [] would be deluded, even without the real limits now set by climate change, resource scarcity etc. For a start, some estimate that even if one takes these trends as a given there will still remain a rural population approaching three billion at mid century.

Additionally, many of these least converging populations are likely to be in those countries commonly described as failed states. It seems likely, then, that rather than a global convergence we will see the continued emergence of radically divergent worlds β€” both between nations and within them. Additionally, sudden trend reversals, in health for example, can surprise. Just look at the unpredicated AIDS epidemic in Africa or the dramatically increased Russian male death rates in the s.

A useable though simplistic and therefore false summation might be that many people in the long-industrialised countries tend to still hold to a vision of a single Third World that is far less industrialised than much of it is, whilst many in the emerging economies of the global south view their futures as far more rosy and pre-determined than they probably are; and finally, those populations that from a standard economic perspective lie at the bottom, will in the medium future look much like they do now, but will probably be living in less hospitable environments.

The best one can say is that uneven convergence trends in many of the developing worlds will for now continue but not universally ; that there are no destinations given and the rides may be bumpy indeed, not least due to inter-power rivalry. The trends I have mentioned are simultaneously bringing much β€” but by no means all β€” of humanity together whilst breeding limitless division.

While different places are, by nature, different, one near constant across the burgeoning metropoli are the slums. At least one billion people already live in them, a figure expected to rise to two billion within two decades and three billion people by mid-century. This means one in three people [] on earth could be living in non-formalised urban terrains, in shacks, tents, corrugated iron, tenement and rubbish. Already in many countries slum dwellers make up the majority of urbanites. Bombay is the global slum capital with 10β€”12 million squatters and tenement dwellers followed by Mexico City and Dhaka with 9β€”10 million each, then Lagos, Cairo, Kinshasa-Brazzaville, Sao Paulo, Shanghai and Delhi all with 6β€”8 million.

The first night I slept in a Third World squatter neighbourhood I felt surprisingly at home, as I am sure anyone who has lived in squats especially occupations in the global north would do. The bodged electrics, the air of cameraderie, the dirt, the dogs everywhere. If the bright yellow M arches signpost the presence of corporate globalisation then shelters constructed from fading blue plastic tarps and pallets also act as global signposts β€” this time that you are entering squatter worlds. The family I was staying with were lovely and there was so much energy and creativity and resilience crammed into the shack alleys all around, I truly felt like I was in a Temporary Autonomous Zone. A lot of what I experienced in that community made me strangely proud to be human but those of us who see solutions as arising from autonomy, informality, self help and class struggle can fall into the trap of seeing what we want to see in the slums.

This often starts at the lowest level with subdivisions, roofs and rooms rented out by established inhabitants to newer arrivals. In the slums of Nairobi for example, many of those who fall behind on rent, even for a day, face the terror of the landlord and his henchmen turning up to confiscate their meagre possessions, evict them and worse. If we have said where much of the burgeoning urban majorities live, what about what they do, where they work, and where they are going? What I will say, is that many slum inhabitants could be seen and see themselves as in transition.

Transition from country to urban. From refugee to worker. From dispossessed to propertied. From slum dweller to somewhere else. This narrative is as old as capitalism. In the West, horrors upon horrors followed, eventually manufacturing the industrial worker [] but not before the near century of revolutions born in France in and dying in Spain in Thanks to lack of sanitation, water supply and drainage; water shortages and the spread of disease are some of the greatest problems presently facing many slum dwellers.

Even without massive climate change kicking in, the number of major disasters in urban areas has been increasing rapidly and most of this growth is from storms and floods. The recuperative power of such communities is incredible, but we can presume the great floods to come are likely to exacerbate social crisis and instability. By far the least pleasant experience I had in the squatter neighbourhood I mentioned earlier was attending a Sunday church service. I had managed to dodge others, but this time there was no escape. The church itself was the biggest building in the neighbourhood and it too was largely built from salvage. I found it truly upsetting to see so many of the people I had spent time with venting religious irrationality, enacting inane rituals and submitting to the authority of preachers, god and scripture.

The church had received some hymn tapes from a Pentecostal denomination in the USA and thus I sat listening to hundreds of squatters who, though English was not their first language, sang out American hymns in psuedo-American accents. In fact, in the country I was in, not a single bookshop in the capital, all of which were owned by churches , sold anything mentioning evolution, nevermind anarchist revolution.

Much of radical politics is religion by other means, but in the slums, and amongst the dispossessed generally, the old gods are growing in stature. While sects may differ in their degree of quietism or militancy, they share an unreality that is unlikely to aid the map-reading ability of the downtrodden in truly confusing times. In contrast, religious authoritarians seem to be gaining converts everywhere, and, generally, the more social dislocation, the better the recruitment.

Amongst the obvious pain this creates, I pointed to the possibilities this opens up for libertarian social forces. Unfortunately, in slums from Kinshasa to Gaza, it is religious authoritarians that are most often taking advantage of this potential to build dual or multi power through the provision of heath and general care, and this is often done alongside the build-up of armed capacity. If much of the poor are living in hellish conditions, and putting their trust in the millennium or the afterlife, the elites and middle classes are increasingly living in guarded heavens modelled on the gated suburbs of the USA.

Like Apartheid South Africa or South Africa today for that point these heavens still need workers β€” cleaners, gardeners, van drivers and security guards β€” many of which live in the surrounding hells. As the poisoned oligarchs of Haiti [] could tell you, this, despite the CCTV, is not as safe as it looks. With such divided worlds β€” and such divided cities β€” uprisings and generalised conflicts are always on the cards. The combination of unparalleled income disparity, deprivation, crowding and the spread of criminal gangs and millenarian groups is a heady mix. As a US Army think tank report puts it:. We also find what is probably an effect of these conditions; the large array of anti-state actors.

Anarchists, criminals, the dispossessed, foreign meddlers, cynical opportunists, lunatics, revolutionaries, labor leaders, ethnic nationals They can also commit acts of violence and handle ideas that provoke others Analyses that focus on a single strand of the fabric of violence β€” that isolate on ethnic rivalry, mafias, or revolutionary cadre β€” can underestimate the disruptive power that those phenomena gain when they coincide. Troubles will not come as single soldiers; they will come in battalions. So the militaries and militarised police forces are both fighting and preparing for conflict in the new, unmapped, urban jungles.

There are reasons why states often like to concentrate their subjects. Wider examples of how the slums deter insurgency abound. As Charles Onyango-Obbo says:. Without them, perhaps there would have been a second Mau Mau uprising. Despite being tools of domestication there are feral possibilities in the cities as almost everywhere. Their place as the exclusive terrain of power is a generalised delusion, even if it is backed up by violent facts. Nowhere is fully civilised. Here we seem to have the beginning of a return to the flowering of diverse transnational Anarchisms that characterised us a century ago. As Richard Mabey has put it, civilisation divides life into:.

Weeds occur when this tidy compartmentalisation breaks down. The wild gatecrashes our civilised domains and the domesticated escapes and runs riot. There are cracks in the pavement and our growth can lever them wider. In most places, by doing so we are unlikely to destroy the concrete utterly but we can open up more spaces in which to grow together. To see them in isolation without implicitly seeing their links and interactions within the wider community would be foolish.

Practical international solidarity is sometimes helpful, but it will be the vigour of the plants themselves and how suitable their environment is that will primarily determine whether they take hold. If, as many theorists of elite power fear, the fast expanding, largely unplanned cities of the global south are fertile ground for the growth of anarchy, the age of the mega-cities will be interesting indeed.

What rebellions await? What ideologies will be concocted? How will humanities feel and see themselves following this massive disconnection from the land? Will all these cities remain at the end of the century or are they a transitory bloom? How will climate change, conflict, civilisational expansion and contraction affect them? What can we, the weeds, do to defend the wilderness? As long as class society exists, the war on the wild will continue β€” they are one and the same. I say ideal, because for all the reasons outlined already and more, in most places we are unlikely to see an ecological transcendence.

But if the millennium is a myth, apocalypses feel more and more like unfolding realities. Many understandably fear that rainforests could die-off in the future thanks to climate change induced drought, [] but the fact is that today much of them are already being cleared and burnt to make way for agriculture β€” still the number one driver of tropical deforestation. As part of this process anthropogenic climate change is likely to be a force magnifier. And the problem of alien and invasive species, so favoured by non-natural disturbance, is only greater when climate change is added The impact of climate change in this heavily fragmented world may be immense. How immense? No one really knows, though plenty are trying to work it out.

As Stephen M. Meyer points out in The End of the Wild, extinction rates β€” long before significant climate change kicks in β€” are already in the order of 3, species a year and rapidly accelerating. The situation is truly dire. The broad path for biological evolution is now set for the next several million years. And in this sense the extinction crisis β€” the race to save the composition, structure, and organisation of biodiversity as it exists today β€” is over, and we have lost. Relic Species do not thrive in human-dominated environments β€” which now nearly cover the planet. They are ghosts because while they seem plentiful today and may in fact persist for decades, their extinction is certain, apart from a few specimens in zoos or laboratory-archived DNA samples.

A great many of the plants and animals we perceive as healthy and plentiful today are in fact relics or ghosts. This seeming contradiction is explained by the fact that species loss is not a simple linear process. Many decades can pass between the start of the decline and the observable collapse of a population structure, especially where moderate-to-long-lived life forms are involved. In the past century we have accumulated a vast extinction debt that will be paid in the century ahead.

The number of plants and animals will spiral as the extinction debt comes due. So what strategies are conservationists coming up with to protect biodiversity, wildness and ecosystem services amidst climate change? The main proposed answer still seems to be protected areas, [] but with a greater protection for their surrounding matrix and with an eye to flux and increased interventionist management.

Often as not, they have simply monetised existing relationships with the land, bred resentment and instilled another layer of bureaucracy over the heads of local people with marginal conservation gains. None of which seem particularly likely on much of the planet. We already know some of what this will begin to look like β€” just look at the incredibly interventionist nature of most of British conservation. The bioregion where I live is, in the context of temperate Europe, bio-diverse but it is heavily managed, in part by conservationists.

Given the fragmentation of existing habitat it would probably be disastrous if such management stopped. From a radical environmental perspective not to mention one with an eye to island biogeography the solution would be rolling back human management of habitat over a large enough area that the ecosystems could function effectively. A few years back an old friend and comrade told me, with obvious sadness in his eyes, that the earth will need active management for the next 1, years. While doubting its efficacy, I for one will not condemn those who β€” motivated by biocentric passion β€” take this path.

Action, action of any kind. Let our action set the finer points of our philosophy Out of this planet, out of the earth has emerged a society of warriors, women and men who are planting their spears in the ground and are taking a stand Our job is damage control. There are still places and peoples that civilisation has not yet conquered and in these places lines can be drawn and battles joined.

Ecological resistance scattered across the planet has been inspiring and often effective. Different people use different priority-setting systems to choose where to plant their spears, with the commonest being the simplest β€” where can I reach and where do I love? For many, the answers to the questions of how and where to defend the wild will be obvious, the local agents of destruction clear, communities roused, places to be occupied available, stuff to be destroyed visible. The thing then is simply to act. However, many wild ecosystems and the non-civilised peoples that are part of them have few if any allies and many potential warriors live in places with little wildness to defend, or with little chance of victory.

Given we are in a pretty shitty situation it seems helpful to transform disadvantages into advantages. The first disadvantage that can be turned around is the simple fact that not that many people are willing to commit to defending the wild, few are libertarians and fewer still are able to travel far from home, or put time and resources into solidarity action or fundraising. When this is coupled with the scale of the global problem, and the number and diversity of battles, an obvious advantage appears.

The problems vastly outnumber those of us wishing to engage them from our perspective and, thus, we should be able to concentrate on only those battles which most reflect our ethics. This is likely to be never. Some indigenous peoples, driven by deeply held land ethics, willingly defend the bio-diverse wildland communities they are part of from development. Solidarity and joint struggle with such peoples is often the most successful strategy for wilderness defence and one that usually involves few compromises and contradictions for biocentric libertarians. Sea Shepherd has managed to gain influence and strengthen conservation in the Galapagos Islands by providing funds, equipment and technical support to the Park Service β€” who had previously suffered from both inadvertent neglect and purposeful underfunding to hamstring their chance of interfering with politician-backed mafia style industrial fishing.

For instance, Congolese rangers have been killed over 10 years defending mountain gorilla habitats, and small amounts of money β€” not least to support bereaved families β€” is making a real difference to the sustainability of projects and communities. This illusion unfortunate as it is from an anti-imperialist perspective can be of great use. Much destruction and attacks are carried out by forces that, though in no way libertarian, are nevertheless outside or adversarial to the particular state that controls the terrain on paper. As the recent experience of Earth First! Even more directly, Sea Shepherd has successfully branded itself as enforcing conservation in international β€” i.

As part of globalisation, an increasing amount of urban social movement anarchists are cropping up in lands claimed by such states such as Indonesia, Chile, the Philippines and Russia. Many of these are well placed to engage in ecological resistance and solidarity with indigenous peoples and channel those from elsewhere to support such struggles. Smaller ecological restoration [] projects seem to be also on the increase. An obvious criticism of damage control is that it could be seen as treating the symptoms and not the root cause. Diagnosis of the malady is clear but it would be deluded to believe one had or more ominously was the cure. Whatever the prognosis, the spread of the disease is surely still worth resisting and if anything climate change only underlines this.

Like it or not climate change is probably now the context in which ecological struggles are fought, not a subject against which one can struggle. In Eastern Europe an amazing wilderness throngs with elk and wolves. Above the woods and pastures of Wormwood Forest eagle owls fly whilst beavers build dams in the rivers and swamps. Welcome to the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Following the nuclear disaster over , people were evacuated from the area β€” most never to return. In the heart of the zone, the previously 50, strong city of Pripyat is now deserted β€” bar a small number of squatters β€” but is by no means a ghost town.

Its true power is rarely considered within the sealed, anthropocentric thinking of those that would profit from the present or attempt to plan the future. Yet the functioning of the Earth System is destructive as well as bountiful and it is not a conscious god with an interest in preserving us or its present arrangement β€” something we may find out if the Earth is now moving to a new much hotter state. Nevertheless, nature bats last. It is no accident that the first civilisation to spread globally originates in temperate Europe. Many other civilisations raised up empires only to destroy their environments and collapse.

The oceanic temperate climate gave Western European civilisation a wider margin of error, enabling civilisation to escape its own regional locality and devour much of the earth. As with other civilisations, it leaves deserts in its footprints β€” but being global in reach but temperate in origin the physical deserts are largely elsewhere. Thus some of the key countries historically responsible for global heating will be the least dramatically affected by it β€” at least directly.

While those large capitalist core countries that span multiple climate zones Australia, USA, Russia may see considerable direct disruption, [] under most models those living in temperate zones β€” especially oceanic and mountainous lands β€” can expect a heated, yet relatively calm, climate punctuated by extreme events. Relative, that is, to situations elsewhere on a rapidly heating and conflicted planet, NOT relative to social and climatic situations today. Polyglot refugees in vast numbers are imprisoned in a seaside ghetto town. Such a picture could be an image from the future climate for not just the Britain Isles but many temperate countries, especially those states with oceanic borders which both moderate climatic extremes and enable easier border control such as New Zealand, Tasmania etc.

The convergence of war, economic decline and ecological crisis will lead to greater overall social conflict within the imperialist nations in the years to come. It is this growing conflict that will create changes in the present social conditions [with] greater opportunities for organised resistance. The rulers are well aware of this, and it is for this reason that state repression is now being established as a primary means of social control i. Rather, social crises are inevitable in societies based on class warfare, and will only be exaggerated by the emerging conditions.

Scandinavia and the oceanic parts of northern Europe such as the British Isles may be spared the worst of heat and drought that global heating brings. This puts a special responsibility upon us to Legal immigration today is class and to a certain extent race selective and this is likely to become only more the case. Overall struggles are extremely unlikely to change this, though when focused on individuals will no doubt continue to have some great successes. The lack of overt civil war is merely a sign of the depth of our domestication, as in most places, the policing needs only be sporadic.

Pecking orders are almost everywhere, and from the boredom, pain and indignity of wage labour to our exclusion from the land community, we live in and are occupied territory. If we disregard the illogic of private property and take food or shelter when needed we risk facing security guards, bailiffs, police and prisons. Though largely absent from the spectacle the class casualties mount up β€” in my country the richest live on average 10 years longer than the poorest [] and one of the greatest single predictors of fatal heart disease β€” thanks to social stress β€” is how low one is in a hierarchy. Our lives can be better, freer, and wilder than this and as anarchists we do our utmost to make them so, not in the ever-after of post-revolutionary heaven, but now.

Nevertheless despite being anarchists many of us find ourselves in relatively temperate social climates far from overt conflict on the scale likely to be seen beyond the walls. This brings both advantages and disadvantages. The Fortress faces inwards as well as out. Increasingly new technologies of control are brought in under the justification of fear of the barbarians β€” whether of terrorists or migrants. Somewhat evocative of sci-fi dystopias not to mention the Gaza Strip covert surveillance drones are already flying British skies introduced initially for maritime border control, a public justification which the police themselves admit is largely a ruse.

Pervasive technologies of control, many even paid for by ourselves and adopted voluntarily, such as mobiles, computers, bank cards and road cameras with number plate recognition map social networks, changing affiliations and physical movements. Whether or not control technologies converge to create an intelligence state that understands everyone rather than merely gathers data on them is yet to be seen; but against those pre-existing cultures of opposition the lenses are very much already focused. Sadly, much of the focusing is done by us. The fact that our tyrannical enemy no longer draws its power from its ability to shut people up, but from its aptitude to make them talk β€” i.

A limited response would be along with abandoning any dialogue with power and spectacle relinquishing the use of new near universal communication technologies. Though this may have wider lifestyle benefits, it may also increasingly make oneself stand out. When the French anti-terrorist police invaded the land community in Tarnac in one of the public justifications they gave for suspecting that a terrorist cell was forming was that few on the land had mobiles! The balance of advantage should always be taken into consideration. We need to always ask ourselves the question: To what extent is the planned action or method of social relationship likely to haemorrhage data on potentially resistive identities?

With increasingly powerful surveillance states and storms approaching, our responsibility to each other, especially to those as yet unimplicated, grows. Shelves overflow with histories of past struggles and hallucinations of the post-revolutionary future whilst surprisingly little has been written about anarchist life under, not after, capitalism. The state is not something which can be destroyed by a revolution, but is a condition, a certain relationship between human beings, a mode of human behaviour; we destroy it by contracting other relationships, by behaving differently. One of the strengths of anarchist currents has always been the desire, and attempt, to live our ethics now. One does not need to believe, as many have, that counter-cultures are pre-figurative to see their value.

This is nothing new, even if it does seem in its own small way to once again be becoming more widespread. The minorities may have got larger in insurrectionary moments, but they remained minorities always. The same can be said for libertarian subcultures ever since. For the foreseeable future libertarians in temperate regions will remain minorities, even as possibilities for widespread anarchy arise beyond the walls.

There are many things we can do, but we cannot change the fact that we will not be joined voluntarily and actively by most citizens. We will always be within and against, and this may become increasingly dangerous for all involved. I live in an area with a sizeable anarchist subculture. I like living amongst people who make my life lovelier in a society not of my choosing, and with whom I can continue to engage in resistance.

Such clustering is unfortunately almost designed to attract unwanted attention. In the end though, our security rests primarily on the wider society, not simply the practices of the subcultures we create. Counter-cultures need embedded security to survive, but our main security lies hidden in the wider culture. For the presence of factors that link us, and our desires, ethics and needs, to those of the surrounding society. Doing so is self-protective. Beyond our own security, choosing battles based on where people already are, and linking the anarchies we are growing with existing ecologies, social relations and gains from previous struggles, has the significant advantage of making anarchy more translatable. As Colin Ward said:.

Many years of attempting to be an anarchist propagandist have convinced me that we win over our fellow citizens to anarchist ideas, precisely through drawing upon the common experience of the informal, transient, self-organising networks of relationships that in fact make the human community possible, rather than through the rejecting of existing society as a whole in favour of some future society where some different kind of humanity will live in perfect harmony. Seeking out other elements, other allies, wider compatible. We are anarchists. What strengths we have arise from our desires, and active decisions, to live freer and wilder, as communities, as individuals; false unity with authoritarian social forces only weakens us. In our own small ways, where we exist, libertarian communities of resistance are gathering resources and growing connections of mutual aid in the cities, re-inhabiting and defending the land, and trying to grow a fighting spirit.

We can do far better, but we have started. Subcultures are part of the encompassing society and thus one of their characters is that their practises can seep out into the surrounding culture, often in a deformed way but not always entirely washed clean of their ethics and healthiness or otherwise, as the case may be. Horrific as the situation today is, it would be worse still if it was not for resistance and the unforeseen effects of people trying to live well. One answer to how to make counter-cultures less of a threat to those within them would be to drain them of antagonism; make them obviously unthreatening to power. This counsel of evasion and non-resistance has long been articulated in the lived experience of anarchies both outside civilisation, and within. Those communities with a land base capable of some level of self-sufficiency will still face intervention, whilst those immersed in capitalism will often have little option but to labour, and lacking resistance, for worsening hours and wages.

Given where we find ourselves, a lot of what we already do makes sense, even when the overt justifications for such action remain mired in visions of salvation as outlined in Chapter 1. Ironically, these practical actions are sometimes abandoned when it is realised correctly that they will not lead to the transformation of the world. Strikes and syndicalism may not be steps towards a future anarcho-communism but they may aid survival in the here and now and open up time in which to live better. Riots may not lead to revolution but they can break the social spell for many.

As noted earlier in discussion of increased surveillance, this ground may be disappearing from under our feet, irrelevant of arguments of its utility. There was a time, not many decades ago, when police had no riot uniforms and had to use metal rubbish bin lids as improvised round shields amidst an inner-city insurgency. Charities could openly run fundraising pushes for medical support for armed liberation movements abroad SWAPO β€” through the National Union of Students! To an extent, a lot of the type of actions that will become increasingly difficult, especially the spectacular stuff, could be dumped with little loss anyway.

Often their only purpose is to make people feel they are Doing Politics. For a start we should be clear that we are by no means viewed as the only, or even the main, resistive social force. Unhappiness, poverty, social division, irrationality and the desire to fight abound, and many in elites understand that the potential for chaos is often barely under wraps. As pointed to earlier in the discussion of the rise of mega-cities, state theorists often do not make the mistake of seeing economic crime as divorced from the wider class war. Some military theories have long divided different forms of modern conflict into generations.

Hammes spends most of the book explaining 4GW, pointing out that this is a form of war the US and co are, and will, be fighting for some time, and that β€” at least in the 20 th century β€” it is the only type of war that it has lost. Earlier we looked at military thinking about insurgency in the new mega-cities of the majority world, but those who would maintain the submissive peace also remember the LA Uprising and are rapidly militarising as they await its return. The extent of apocalyptic thinking amongst elites and the failure of oppressed classes to often live up to them was most evident in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

Yet even in the day-to-day absence of such uprisings there are, and will be, opportunities to intervene and participate in moments of wider social and ecological struggle; to show leadership from below, help instill a fighting spirit and provide important infrastructure. Success often comes when upsurges seem to appear out of nowhere, but benefit from the will and experience residing in established communities of resistance.

Such situations will not be the foundation for a total libertarian transformation of the world, yet they do have a chance of occasionally achieving real class gains, defending communities and ecologies, making people safer, showing people their own capacity, and breaking social spells. We should also be under no illusion that authoritarian social forces β€” on both sides of the barricades β€” will not try and control such moments for their own uses. It seems then, at least in the minds of some of our enemies, that the main offensive forms that resistance will take in more surveyed and grating future temperate worlds, will be those of un-networked super-empowered small groups and individuals and largely unmanaged episodes of mass social opposition.

For now, a middle ground also exists β€” mostly occupied by activism and crime β€” but maybe for not much longer. As I said earlier, subversive actions serve the needs of power as well as liberty, so toleration may last longer than strictly technologically necessary if it plays the role of inhibiting emerging forms of action. It should also be obvious that the oppositional forms so far mentioned β€” existent or yet to appear β€” are methods of opposition, not enablers of transcendence or ending. This will not stop them being claimed as such. In our circles some communists will no doubt see social struggles and outbreaks of disorder as leading to transcendence, while some primitivists will see 5GW as a way of ending civilisation in its heartlands.

Situations in far off lands also call, and those behind the walls can get out β€” at least at the moment. Despite the denials, civilisations still have many outsides, and as I have argued in earlier chapters global heating will probably expand many of them. It is my opinion that the situation is hopeless, that the human race has produced an ecological tip over point We have chosen to be anarchists, presumably at least in part, because we feel it is more healthy and ethical to be so. It is better not to be bosses and servants in our intimate and social relationships. Turning the pain we feel into resistance is better than turning it on each other, our own class and our own bodies.

Yet those of us who have chosen to be anarchist, in some of the most domesticated places on earth, still need to find each other β€” both to be effective and to be socially rounded. We have to maintain some invisibility from power whilst still being socially present enough to be contagious. This is followed inevitably by a depressive phase, which once having disillusioned folks of feelings of omnipotence only reinforces illusions of powerlessness. To become stronger and healthier, and encourage and support others to do so, it is sensible to set ourselves realisable short term goals, rather than adopting an all or nothing perspective.

This is the case whether it is in what we want our resistance to achieve, what we want to actively create, what we want to learn or simply what we want to become. In this way our conscious action can take on the function of collective therapy, making our lives measurably improved for being anarchists, whilst achieving wider social and ecological gains. There are many answers on how we can do this. An Anarchism with plenty of adjectives, but one that also sets and achieves objectives, can have a wonderful present and still have a future; even when fundamentally out of the step with the world around it. There is so much we can do, achieve, defend and be; even here, where unfortunately civilisation probably still has a future.

Here I have tried to map present and plausible futures whilst calling for a desertion from old illusions and unwinnable battles in favour of the possible. Yet I can already hear the accusations from my own camp; accusations of deserting the cause of Revolution, deserting the struggle for Another World. Such accusations are correct. I would rejoin that such millenarian and progressive myths are at the very core of the expansion of power. We can be more anarchic than that. The future should not be allowed to foreclose on today, even if today is foreclosing some possibilities in the future. No future is worth living or fighting for that is not existent in the present. None of what I have outlined in this piece is amazingly revelatory; in the anarchist community I live in some mix of these ideas are often felt to be common sense.

In others I think this is the case too. One would however not know that from our overt stated positions either in text or often in the way we talk to each other. Yet, as I have outlined, I feel discarding progressive and revolutionary articles of faith can make us stronger, freer and mentally healthier. Christopher Morahan. Society is naturally developing to secure a life of well being for all, in which collective productivity will be put to collective use β€” Anarchism. Ignoring the grand-standing of the authoritarian left, the main technique in our circles is to think of all the diffuse struggles and moments of personal and collective resistance implicit in class struggle, and then join them together by naming them: communism, the movement of movements, the multitude β€” take your pick.

Fundamentally this is an example of magical thinking, by categorising and naming the diffuse and invisible it becomes real. The thing can then be given attributes and desires can be projected on to it β€” unsurprisingly often exactly the same desires the imaginer would like to see in a movement which expressed their politics. That these incidents of struggle might be being carried out by people with fundamentally different beliefs, desires and needs is unimportant, for it is the imaginary construct that matters, not its actual content.

These quotes are just illustrations β€” you could find many similar ones yourself. Many of you I know are doing great stuff and are lovely people who I have shared laughs and struggles with. I write about these other anarchists in Chapter 4 β€” African Roads to Anarchy. And we tend not to see the wider picture. Available online: www. Some key struggles were on some levels won GM Terminator technology stalled and WTO negotiations imploded , many migrated to more advantageous or dramatic terrains of straggle, some battles moved beyond what was generally acceptable.

This is a possibility A far more pro β€” if still somewhat questioning β€” approach to the conference can be found in: Building Bridges Collective, Space for Movement? Reflections from Bolivia on climate justice, social movements and the state Bristol: Self-published, He does not say that nuclear power is the solution to global heating which he sees as now inevitable. As someone who wants the lights to go out, I can see the logic of his arguments but wanting the opposite have no need to agree with his stance or reject his wider arguments because of it. If one could somehow turn off global industry tomorrow, this dimming effect would disappear and surface temperatures could rise significantly, almost immediately.

This could push feedback mechanisms into place, with massive increases in greenhouse gases being emitted by non-human managed systems. Here I have outlined a very simple and therefore flawed picture of a very complex process. For a better stating of the theory, see Meinrat Andreae et al. The masking affect is now widely accepted but its extent is still unknown. For instance in a study by the Met Office Hadley Centre models showed either a modest or severe increase in heating following a sudden removal of haze. Among the advocates of purposeful geo-engineering the idea of increasing global dimming by dumping sulphates into the stratosphere seems to be gaining support, oh joy..

June Detroit: Fifth Estate, London: Zed Books Catton Jr. The entire centre was filled with girls like her. In India, in the first year of life, from zero to one, boy and girl babies basically survive at the same rate because they depend on the breast, and the breast shows no son preference. From one to five, girls die at a 50 percent higher mortality rate than boys, in all of India. This meant that island nations would struggle to adapt to climate change, he said, while changing rainfall patterns, extreme weather and rising sea levels would threaten agriculture and fisheries on which they depended. The Free Combat Druzhina was equipped with two large guns and an armoured flat car.

The wagons were loaded with armoured cars, tachankas, and horses as well as troops which meant that the detachment was in no means restricted to railway lines. Bureau of Public Secrets www. Our ranks have been further thinned by the many who of have felt forced to escape civilisation through suicide and drugs. Wild animals humans included are tamed β€” domesticated β€” by being fenced off, separated, from their natural environments and free members of their own species. Dominance is burnt into brains through violence and rationing of resources. Wilderness is tamed, both without and within. This amounted to an epochal mutation both in the character of human existence and its development, clouding the latter with ever more violence and work.

L Press: Columbia, , p. While it is important to try and understand their origins, it would be a mistake to see estrangement and domestication as past events, rather they are a process that can be, and is, resisted. Anarchist library www. Conflict can be caused by a combination of greed and grievance and often greed is the motor while grievance is the justification. As workers have this additional source of subsistence, wages can be kept low. Too many activists know the intricacies of struggles, abroad yet little of the social war all around them. The collapse of the Soviet Bloc, social democratic mobilization within Africa and the demands β€” both financially and ideological β€” of the West, are some factors amongst others.

It will be interesting to see how the expansion of Chinese power in Africa affects this. I suspect the experience will convince you that land is liberty and make you desire more of both. For those who like book references as well as soil under their fingernails see: The Ecologist, Whose Common Future? Reclaiming the Commons London: Earthscan, London: Penguin Books, On a side note, before becoming an academic Ponting narrowly avoided jail thanks to an unexpected jury acquittal for leaking the truth behind the Belgrano Affair the British sinking of a Argentine navy warship as it sped away from the Falklands conflict whilst he was a senior MoD civil servant.

I took the cheeky, though I think worthwhile, step of gender neutralising this quote i. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, Livestock production may do somewhat better than crops, especially as herders move away from cattle, which are less heat tolerant and towards goats, sheep and camels, which are better able to cope in drier, hotter conditions. Transhumant systems in which animals are moved according to seasons, are also better placed than those where animals are kept in large commercial beef and dairy farms.

In those areas likely to get hotter and drier, herd composition will change from cattle towards a greater number of small stock or camels. If this means ewer oxen can be kept, this will have knock-on effect on capacity to farm land. Our families were moving from one camp to another and my friends and I were walking ahead of the adults, riding on top of each other, making believe we were donkeys. Kung Woman London: Earthscan, , p. That such assimilation is deeply painful can be seen both in the staggeringly high suicide rates amongst many newly settled communities and in the self harm and suicide rates more generally as children worldwide are formed into adult cogs and microprocessors. For many remote interior landscapes, the perhaps surprising prospects I see is reduced human presence and their return to a wilder state.

Like many slums the area is largely governed by local gangs rather than state ones. Bristol: , UK Bratislava: , Slovakia Oakland: , USA TED, February , www. This does not mean that development in the bottom billion is impossible, but it does make it much harder. The same automatic processes that drove Asian development will impede the development of the bottom billion. London: Routledge, Anarchist Library www.

By , Makandal had fled to the Maroons and used their secret networks to build a force of thousands across Haiti, infiltrating every home and plantation and bringing poison to each, adapted from West African lore to local circumstances. Dependent on their servants, the plantocracy was helpless as one day their livestock died, the next their domestic animals, finally themselves and their families. This article is a bit outdated fax machines as network threat!

Penguin Classic, , p. For a good overview see the excellent: Simon L. Lovejoy and Lee Hannah, eds. There is strong reason to believe that they will continue to be central in conservation strategies designed for climate change Area under protection is expanding, while remaining undisturbed habitat is declining, so that by the time climate change impacts are pronounced, protected areas may represent most of the remaining natural areas of the planet.

Protected areas provide the least disturbed natural habitat, and therefore the best hope for natural response e. Consequently, protected areas will play a dominant role in efforts to conserve biodiversity in the future, as they do now. This indicates that our sentence belongs to Complex-Compound type of sentence. If the grammatical relationship is paratactic, the clauses are coordinated. If the grammatical relationship is hypotactic, the clauses are subordinated. Parataxis is the grammatical arrangement of "equal" constituents clauses. It is a hallmark of Grammer 1.

Every sentence has a subject and a verb. Who or what the sentence speaks about is called the subject. What the sentence says about the subject is called the verb. My best friend studies marine biology Sharks attack their prey. Michael works on a submarine. The linking verb is joins the subject show with a word that identifies or describes it documentary. Common linking verbs include am, are, was, were, feel, appear, look, become and seem 3. Many verbs consist of more than one word. Is writing, are studying etc. Words like not, just, never, always, and only are NOT part of the verb. No -ing word by itself is the verb of the sentence 5.

Prepositions Used for Time and Place. Use on, in, and at to refer to time and place. The subject of a sentence never appears within a prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase is simply a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with an object. An interesting exhibit of a killer whale is very popular at the new aquarium. Prepositional phrases: of a killer whale at the new aquarium 7. Many verbs consists of more than one word. The extra verbs are called auxiliary, or helping, verbs Does work, is working, are working, were working, have worked, had worked, had been working, should work, will be working, could be working, Based on these commonalities, write TWO different synthesis papers and their outlines.

The purpose of this synthesis is to convey the message to parents who abandon their children that there are legal and not life-threatening ways to refuse growing their children. The purpose of this synthesis is to convince the legislators that parents who abandon their children should not be prosecuted as criminals. The final project should include two outlines of the synthesis paper 1 page max for each outline and two synthesis papers 2 pages max for each paper. This kind of stress, known as word-level stress, is actually part of a word's pronunciation. It may also serve to differentiate words that are similar. For example, We're going to record a record, the two similar words are stressed differently so that the first record is stressed on the second syllable vowel reduction in the first syllable also assists in helping us to assign stress to the second syllable , whereas the second record is stressed on the first syllable with vowel reduction in the second syllable.

All words of more than one syllable have a prominent or stressed syllable. If we pronounce a word with appropriate stress, people will understand us; if we use the wrong stress placement, we run the risk of being misunderstood. As we focus a camera on some item of interest, phonetic stress helps us focus our listener's attention on what is most important in our message. But the sound pattern of English does not make it an overriding necessity to adjust the lengths of syllables so as to enforce complete regularity.

The interval between stresses is affected by the number of syllables within the stress group, by the number and type of vowels and The written piece presents the main topic and key information provided in both sources. Transition and reporting verbs are masterly used. No personal view is included. The written piece includes all the parts: introduction, two summaries, and conclusion. Make them true, grammatically correct sentences using punctuation, appropriate conjunctions, or subordinating words. In March, Harry was transferred to a new plant in Detroit, and then he was laid off in June. While it may take a little longer to finish a paper. Professional writers recommend putting it aside for a few hours before doing final proofreading.

My mother was born in Madrid; I had very little trouble learning Spanish. Many people believe in the curative powers of this water they have felt relief after bathing in it. The sun is 93 million miles away it can still burn a person's skin badly. My sister has over two thousand old record albums; she has very little storage space left. Students who write down their assignments in a calendar tend to manage time better. Unless they forget to check their calendars everyday. The CEO received a subscription to his favorite magazine; it arrived in the mail within two weeks.

The jury members deliberated for over two months, the judge has asked to meet with them today. The new oil painting is very colorful it will look good with our bright furnishings. The weather forecaster asked everyone to I have learned so much in the short amount of time that I have spent here at Kennesaw State University. I feel as if I have grown, not only as a student, but as a person as well. I have met many new people, made many new friends, and learned many new things especially in my English class. I thought I knew everything there was to know about writing when I came in on my first day, but I was very wrong.

My professor assured me that there is much more to writing than just putting words down on paper. Knowing all of this, I have now learned how to improve on my writing skills, how to write better grammatically correct sentences, incorporate quotes and research and give as well as get criticism. When I came into this semester as a freshman I was very confident in the quality of my writing.

However, my self-esteem was soon crushed shortly thereafter. Even though my writing skills had been very good compared to my classmates in high school, at the university level they were just average. I had to do something quick to learn how improve on my writing skills. With the help of my teacher, she made us a read a variety of articles that were very interesting, yet also very Home Page English and Literature.

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