✪✪✪ Immigration: Impact Of EU Immigrants
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Croatia probes reports of violent migrant pushbacks at EU border
Open immigration policies and efforts do not address the problems, but keeping borders closed does not address them either. Jeanne Park of the Council on Foreign Relations recommends European leaders to address the root causes of migration such as helping to broker an end to the Syrian Civil War , restoring stability to Libya , and increasing aid to sub-Saharan Africa. According to her, a political solution to the regional crises can make Europe no longer struggle with migrant inflows.
The study found that "higher-skilled immigrants are preferred to their lower-skilled counterparts at all levels of native socio-economic status SES. There is little support for the Labor Market Competition hypothesis, since respondents are not more opposed to immigrants in their own SES stratum. While skin tone itself has little effect in any country, immigrants from Muslim-majority countries do elicit significantly lower levels of support, and racial animus remains a powerful force. A paper published in found that an influx of high-skilled immigration was associated with declines in nationalist voting, but that an influx in low-skilled immigration was associated with increases in nationalist voting in elections during the — period.
While much research has been conducted to determine what causes opposition to immigration, little research has been done to determine the causes behind support for immigration. A study of Europe found that immigrants themselves tend to hold more favorable views of immigration. A review study in the Annual Review of Political Science found that "there is little accumulated evidence that citizens primarily form attitudes about immigration based on its effects on their personal economic situation.
This pattern has held in both North America and Western Europe, in both observational and experimental studies. Levels of education are one of the best predictors of support for anti-immigration policies and parties. Across Europe, higher education and higher skills mean more support for all types of immigrants. These relationships are almost identical among individuals in the labor force that is, those competing for jobs and those not in the labor force. One study of Japan found that exposure to information about the benefits of immigration substantially increased support for a more open immigration policy. A study by Alexander Janus investigated whether social desirability pressures may partially explain reduced opposition to immigration amongst the highly educated.
Using an unobtrusive questioning technique, Janus found that anti-immigration sentiments amongst American college graduates were far higher than subjects were willing to state. This indicates that support for immigration amongst the better educated may reflect expression of socially desirable views rather than actual beliefs. This was true for other education levels. The study also found that the economic crisis did not significantly increase anti-immigration attitudes but rather there was a greater expression of opposition to immigration, with underlying attitudes changing little before and after the crisis.
Some research suggests that geographic proximity to immigrants drives anti-immigration views,  while other research shows the reverse. A study finds that "more rapid ethnic changes increase opposition to immigration and support for UKIP" in the United Kingdom. A study in the American Political Science Review found that Greeks who had "direct exposure to refugee arrivals" showed more hostility "toward refugees, immigrants, and Muslim minorities; support for restrictive asylum and immigration policies; and political engagement to effect such exclusionary policies.
A study investigated why residents of cities tend to have more positive attitudes towards immigration and cosmopolitanism. The study concluded that it was not living in a city per se that created more positive attitudes but rather the composition of the populations of cities; city populations tended to be more educated, which correlated with more positive immigration attitudes, while people who were more positive of immigration were more likely to self-select into large cities.
Cities were also found to be internally heterogenous with regards to immigration attitudes, with attitudes varying between neighbourhoods. Some research suggests that anti-immigration views are transmitted from older generations to younger generations. A study of Germany found "high association between fathers' and sons' right-wing extremist attitudes". A study in the American Political Science Review found that prejudice towards marginalized groups, such as refugees, could be explained by a failure to take the perspective of the marginalized group.
A study found that by emphasizing shared religion can produce more supportive attitudes toward refugees. It was thus determined that religiosity or denomination did not determine explicit or implicit opposition and any differences were down to social desirability bias in this case. One study in the United Kingdom found that opposition to Muslim immigrants was not about a more negative view of Muslim compared to Christian immigrants but rather about rejecting fundamentalist religiosity. The study concluded that opposition based on religion was thus less about the religious group and more about political liberalism versus religious fundamentalism.
A review study in the Annual Review of Political Science found that there is substantial evidence in support of sociopsychological explanations for anti-immigration views. More educated respondents are significantly less racist and place greater value on cultural diversity than do their counterparts; they are also more likely to believe that immigration generates benefits for the host economy as a whole. A study in the American Political Science Review argued that hostility towards immigrants is driven by disgust and can be explained as a psychological mechanism designed to protect humans from disease.
Research suggests that the perception that there is a positive causal link between immigration and crime leads to greater support for anti-immigration policies or parties. For instance, University of California, San Diego political scientist Claire Adida, Stanford University political scientist David Laitin and Sorbonne University economist Marie-Anne Valfort argue "fear-based policies that target groups of people according to their religion or region of origin are counter-productive. Our own research, which explains the failed integration of Muslim immigrants in France, suggests that such policies can feed into a vicious cycle that damages national security. French Islamophobia—a response to cultural difference—has encouraged Muslim immigrants to withdraw from French society, which then feeds back into French Islamophobia, thus further exacerbating Muslims' alienation, and so on.
Indeed, the failure of French security in was likely due to police tactics that intimidated rather than welcomed the children of immigrants—an approach that makes it hard to obtain crucial information from community members about potential threats. Research has also indicated opposition to immigration may be motivated by concern about a persons concern about their group's social position. This causes immigrants to be perceived not as reinforcing the native population but instead as replacing it. The impact of Europeans was profoundly disruptive to Aboriginal life and, though the extent of violence is debated, there was considerable conflict on the frontier.
At the same time, some settlers were quite aware they were usurping the Aborigines place in Australia. In , settler Charles Griffiths sought to justify this, writing; "The question comes to this; which has the better right — the savage, born in a country, which he runs over but can scarcely be said to occupy A sparsely-populated continental nation with a predominantly European population, Australia has long feared being overwhelmed by the heavily populated Asian countries to its north. The standard policy after was " White Australia " which encouraged immigration from Britain, was suspicious of immigrants from Germany and elsewhere in Europe, and which was quite hostile to immigrants from Asia or the Pacific islands. Immigration brought people from traditional sources such as the British Isles along with, for the first time, large numbers of Southern and Central Europeans.
The abolition of the so-called ' White Australia policy ' during the early s led to a significant increase in immigration from Asian and other non-European countries. Prime Minister John Curtin supported White Australia policy , saying "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race. Prime Minister Stanley Bruce was a supporter of the White Australia Policy, and made it an issue in his campaign for the Australian Federal election. It is necessary that we should determine what are the ideals towards which every Australian would desire to strive. I think those ideals might well be stated as being to secure our national safety, and to ensure the maintenance of our White Australia Policy to continue as an integral portion of the British Empire.
Labor leader — H. Evatt was a defender of the White Australia Policy. There was a strong view in Australia that any softening of the White Australia stance might result in cheaper labour being imported from overseas. Another prevailing sentiment was that multiculturalism resulted in instability. Evatt, opposing resolutions which could have led to more Asian immigration to Australia, told the Chinese delegation at San Francisco:.
You have always insisted on the right to determine the composition of your own people. Australia wants that right now. What you are attempting to do now, Japan attempted after the last war [the First World War] and was prevented by Australia. Had we opened New Guinea and Australia to Japanese immigration then the Pacific War by now might have ended disastrously and we might have had another shambles like that experienced in Malaya. This is reflected by Calwell's comments in his memoirs, Be Just and Fear Not , in which he made it clear that he maintained his view that non-European people should not be allowed to settle in Australia.
He wrote:. I am proud of my white skin, just as a Chinese is proud of his yellow skin, a Japanese of his brown skin, and the Indians of their various hues from black to coffee-colored. Anybody who is not proud of his race is not a man at all. And any man who tries to stigmatize the Australian community as racist because they want to preserve this country for the white race is doing our nation great harm I reject, in conscience, the idea that Australia should or ever can become a multi-racial society and survive. It was the high-profile historian Geoffrey Blainey , however, who first achieved mainstream recognition for the anti-multiculturalist cause when he wrote that multiculturalism threatened to transform Australia into a "cluster of tribes".
In his book All for Australia , Blainey criticised multiculturalism for tending to "emphasise the rights of ethnic minorities at the expense of the majority of Australians" and also for tending to be "anti-British", even though "people from the United Kingdom and Ireland form the dominant class of pre-war immigrants and the largest single group of post-war immigrants. According to Blainey, such a policy, with its "emphasis on what is different and on the rights of the new minority rather than the old majority," was unnecessarily creating division and threatened national cohesion.
He argued that "the evidence is clear that many multicultural societies have failed and that the human cost of the failure has been high" and warned that "we should think very carefully about the perils of converting Australia into a giant multicultural laboratory for the assumed benefit of the peoples of the world. In one of his numerous criticisms of multiculturalism , Blainey wrote:. For the millions of Australians who have no other nation to fall back upon, multiculturalism is almost an insult. It is divisive. It threatens social cohesion. It could, in the long-term, also endanger Australia's military security because it sets up enclaves which in a crisis could appeal to their own homelands for help. Blainey remained a persistent critic of multiculturalism into the s, denouncing multiculturalism as "morally, intellectually and economically In the election Pauline Hanson was elected to the federal seat of Oxley.
In her controversial maiden speech to the House of Representatives, she expressed her belief that Australia "was in danger of being swamped by Asians". Hanson went on to form the One Nation Party , which initially won nearly one quarter of the vote in Queensland state elections before entering a period of decline due to internal disputes. Some Australians reacted angrily to One Nation, as Hanson was subjected to water balloons filled with urine at public speeches, ridiculed in the media, and received so many death threats she filmed a "good-bye video" in the case of her assassination.
In recent years the rise of other anti-immigrant parties such as the Australian Liberty Alliance and groups such as the United Patriot Front indicates that anti-immigration sentiment may be becoming mainstream. Opponents of immigration to Canada have argued that immigration to Canada in current numbers of about , per year, the highest in the Western world, is unsustainable and puts pressure on resources such as further worsening the country's current housing crisis. This also further creates a competition for jobs and puts a strain on the economy, the environment and tax funded public services.
Except for Poland, all of those had recently suffered jihadist terror attacks or been at the centre of a refugee crisis. Political opposition to high levels of legal immigration has been associated with certain right-wing parties in the EU. The issue flared up with the European migrant crisis in with large numbers of refugees from the Middle East and Africa making dangerous trips to Europe and many deaths en route. With high levels of unemployment and partly unassimilated non-European immigrant populations already within the EU, parties opposed to immigration have improved their position in polls and elections.
Right-wing parties critical to immigration have entered the government in Austria, Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Slovakia, and have become major factors in English, Swedish, German and French politics. Immigration is one of the central political issues in many European countries, and increasingly also at European Union level. The anti-immigration perspective is predominantly nationalist, cultural and economic. A new index measuring the level of perceived threat from immigrants has been recently proposed and applied to a data set covering 47 European countries and regions.
In France, the National Front opposes immigration. Hundreds of Greek soldiers and armed police resisted the trespassers and fired tear gas at them. Among those who attempted to cross the majority were not war refugees from Syria, but the largest group was from Afghanistan and the next largest from Pakistan along with significant numbers of migrants from African countries Ethiopia, Morocco and Algeria. Greece responded by refusing to accept asylum applications for a month. In during the European migrant crisis , Hungary built a razor-wire fence on its border to Serbia to stop migrants from entering the European Union.
Portugal had little immigration until a sudden influx in the s, as ex-colonists, most of them ethnically white, returned. There are nearly , Brazilians a considerable proportion of them of mixed-race background and , people of African Ancestry living in Portugal. Until recently, far-right party " National Renewal Party ", known as PNR, was the only one in Portugal which actively targeted the mass-immigration and ethnic minorities mainly related to Gypsy and African communities issues. In Spain, surveys show "in descending order, jobs, crime and housing" as the primary concerns for citizens opposed to immigration. These parties have never won national or regional parliamentary seats.
The measures reduced the number of asylum seekers from in to 29 in In the period — In February finance minister Magdalena Andersson encouraged migrants to head for other countries than Sweden. Andersson stated in an interview that integration of immigrants in Sweden wasn't working since neither before nor after and that Sweden cannot accept more immigration than it is able to integrate. In several municipalities refused to pay social welfare to additional asylum seekers from settling in their domains.
In a government deal from January Swedish: Januariavtalet 32 municipalities were allowed to designate vulnerable areas in their domains where asylum seekers would lose the right to social welfare payouts. In the UK the British National Party made opposition to immigration one of their central policies in the general election. The vote for the UK to leave the EU was successful in Britain, with several commentators suggesting that populist concern over immigration from the EU was a major feature of the public debate. In December , the parliament approved legislation which would allow the government to overrule the Supreme Court to deport 40 illegal immigrants.
In the preceding decade, some 60 illegal immigrants entered Israel by crossing the border with Egypt. Some were legitimate refugees, most were economic migrants. India has anti-immigration parties at the state level. Two anti-immigration parties in the state of Maharashtra , the Shiv Sena and the Maharashtra Navnirman Sena , are a proponent of the idea that migrants from Northern India steal jobs from the native Marathi people , with a history of attacking immigrants and accusing them of playing a role in crime in the city of Mumbai.
The Shiv Sena also has a history of threatening the Pakistani cricket team from coming to Mumbai and also threatening Australian cricket players in the Indian Premier League , following racially motivated attacks on Indian students in Australia in In the last few decades, there has been a rise in the anti-illegal immigration attitudes in the North East Indian states like Assam , which has become a common entry point for illegal immigrants from Bangladesh. Riots have occurred between the native tribes of Assam and illegal immigrants from Bangladesh. In , the Government of India introduced the Citizenship Amendment Act , which gives a faster path to Indian citizenship for Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian religious minorities that have immigrated both legally and illegally from Pakistan , Bangladesh and Afghanistan that suffer religious persecution provided they arrived in India before 31 December Widespread protests have been held, both opposing and supporting the Act.
The National Register of Citizens is a register of all Indian citizens whose creation is mandated by the amendment of the Citizenship Act, Its purpose is to document all the legal citizens of India so that the illegal migrants can be identified and deported. Brazil is a country of immigrants and developed a reputation for "warm welcome" of people all over the world. Nevertheless, different analysts often dispute how truthful this image is and, although openly xenophobic manifestation were uncommon, some scholars denounce it existence in more subtle ways.
Despite the fact that Brazil was considered a safe haven for neighboring refugees and immigrants, xenophobic violence has erupted. Brazil received up to Syrian refugees becoming the largest receiver of such in Latin America. The burning of the refugee camps was reported in national and international news outlet and the authorities announce they will investigate and prosecute the authors. During the Brazilian general election in , then far-right presidential candidate Jair Bolsonaro said the government should not turn its back on popular sentiment in Roraima, and proposed the creation of refugee camps with the help of the UN. In a interview with the French news magazine L'Express Canadian academic and environmental activist David Suzuki stated that Canada's immigration policy was "crazy" and "Canada is full".
However, he insisted that Canada should "open its doors to those who are oppressed" and accept refugees. The National Citizens Alliance is a far-right political party in Canada that regularly holds anti-immigration rallies. Anti-immigrant feelings date back to late 19th century and early 20th century with the country's first waves of migrations from places like China , Lebanon and Poland. Non-Polish European migration dates back to practically the independence from Spain but was generally well received. Records of the time show Chinese migrants as the most affected by prejudice especially from government official and the first anti-Chinese laws were enacted as far back as the s.
Polish , Chinese and Lebanese migrants would integrate fully into Costa Rican society with time to the point that many prominent Costa Ricans from industry, politics, arts, academy, etc. During the second half of the 20th century and to this date Costa Rica receives numerous waves of Latin American migrants from all the region, but Nicaraguans are by far the higher group among immigrant population encompassing The Migration Law was reform globally in hardening some of the requirements for entering, staying and working on the country which was criticized as excessive,  but further reforms, the last one in , reduce some of the impact of the more controversial parts of the law.
After a series of fake news spread by several far-right Facebook pages  inciting hatred against Nicaraguan migrants, an anti-migration manifestation was organized on 18 August known as the "Taken of La Merced" after Nicaraguan refugees were falsely accused of having "taking" La Merced Park in San Jose , a common gathering of the Nicaraguan community. The national police Public Force intervened  with up to 44 people arrested, 36 of such were Costa Rican and the rest Nicaraguans. In Mexico, during the first eight months of , more than , people from Central America were deported to their countries of origin.
This is a much higher number than the people deported in the same period in , when only 1 person was deported in the entire year. Mexico has very strict laws pertaining to both illegal and legal immigrants. Certain legal rights are waived, such as the right to a deportation hearing or other legal motions. In cases of flagrante delicto , any person may make a citizen's arrest on the offender and his accomplices, turning them over without delay to the nearest authorities.
Many immigration restrictionists in the United States have accused the Mexican government of hypocrisy in its immigration policy, noting that while the Government of Mexico and Mexican Americans are demanding looser immigration laws in the United States and oppose the Arizona Immigration Bill , at the same time Mexico is imposing even tighter restrictions on immigration into Mexico from Central America and other places than the Arizona law.
However, Mexico started enforcing those laws which they previously ignored at the direct request of the United States, which saw a surge of Central American immigration during the Bush years; the newly elected president of Mexico has stated his desire to be more open, and would not deport Central Americans on their way to the United States or those who wish to remain in Mexico. The recent exodus of Venezuelan migrants in Panama encouraged the xenophobic and anti-migration public speech from Panamanian nationalist groups.
In the United States of America , opponents of immigration typically focus on perceived adverse effects, such as economic costs job competition and burdens on education and social services ; negative environmental impact from accelerated population growth; increased crime rates, and in the long run, changes in traditional identities and values.
In countries where the majority of the population is of immigrant descent, such as the United States, opposition to immigration sometimes takes the form of nativism. In the United States, opposition to immigration has a long history, starting in the late s, in reaction to an influx of political refugees from France and Ireland. The Alien and Sedition Acts of severely restricted the rights of immigrants. Nativism first gained a name and affected politics in the midth century United States because of the large inflows of immigrants from cultures that were markedly different from the existing Protestant culture. Nativists primarily objected to Roman Catholics , especially Irish Americans. Nativist movements included the American Party of the midth Century formed by members of the Know-Nothing movement , the Immigration Restriction League of the early 20th Century, and the anti-Asian movements in the West , resulting in the Chinese Exclusion Act and the so-called " Gentlemen's Agreement " which was aimed at the Japanese.
Major restrictions became law in the s and sharply cut the inflow of immigrants until , when they ended. Immigration again became a major issue from the s onward, with burgeoning rates of undocumented immigration, particularly by Mexicans who crossed the Southern border, and others who overstayed their visitor visas. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of provided an amnesty which was described as the amnesty to end all amnesties but it had no lasting impact on the flow of illegal immigrants. By , the Tea Party movement narrowed its focus away from economic issues, spending and Obamacare to attacking President Barack Obama 's immigration policies. They saw his immigration policies as threatening to transform American society.
They tried but failed to defeat leading Republicans who supported immigration programs, such as Senator John McCain. As of , over This was about The American Federation of Labor AFL , a coalition of labor unions formed in the s, vigorously opposed unrestricted immigration from Europe for moral, cultural, and racial reasons. The issue unified the workers who feared that an influx of new workers would flood the labor market and lower wages. However, nativism was a factor when the AFL even more strenuously opposed all immigration from Asia because it represented to its Euro-American members an alien culture that could not be assimilated into American society.
The AFL intensified its opposition after and was instrumental in passing immigration restriction bills from the s to the s, such as the Emergency Quota Act and the Immigration Act of , and seeing that they were strictly enforced. Mink concludes that the link between the AFL and the Democratic Party rested in part on immigration issues, noting the large corporations, which supported the Republicans, wanted more immigration to augment their labor force. Their opposition stemmed from their belief that the program undermined U. Since the Bracero Program ensured a constant supply of cheap immigrant labor for growers, immigrants could not protest any infringement of their rights, lest they be fired and replaced.
Their efforts contributed to Congress ending the Bracero Program in In , the UFW was one of the first labor unions to oppose proposed employer sanctions that would have prohibited hiring illegal immigrants. On a few occasions, concerns that illegal immigrant labor would undermine UFW strike campaigns led to a number of controversial events, which the UFW describes as anti-strikebreaking events, but which have also been interpreted as being anti-immigrant. In , Chavez and members of the UFW marched through the Imperial and Coachella Valleys to the border of Mexico to protest growers' use of illegal immigrants as strikebreakers. Joining him on the march were Reverend Ralph Abernathy and U. Senator Walter Mondale.
In , the United Farm Workers set up a "wet line" along the United States-Mexico border to prevent Mexican immigrants from entering the United States illegally and potentially undermining the UFW's unionization efforts. In , Chavez used a forum of a U. Senate committee hearing to denounce the federal immigration service, which he said the U. Immigration and Naturalization Service purportedly refused to arrest illegal Mexican immigrants who Chavez claims are being used to break the union's strike. Bernie Sanders opposes guest worker programs  and he is also skeptical of skilled immigrant H-1B visas, saying,:"Last year, the top 10 employers of H-1B guest workers were all offshore outsourcing companies. These firms are responsible for shipping large numbers of American information technology jobs to India and other countries".
What right-wing people in this country would love is an open-border policy. I don't believe in that. I think we have to raise wages in this country, I think we have to do everything we can to create millions of jobs. Several periods of violent riots against migrants have occurred in South Africa in the past decade, some resulting in fatalities. Countries from which the migrants targeted originated include Malawi , Mozambique and Zimbabwe.
In March , groups armed with machetes broke into the homes of migrants in Durban. At least six people were killed, several were wounded and their homes were looted. At least Malawi migrants were forced to leave the country. In separate attacks, foreign truck drivers were forced out of their vehicles and were attacked with knives. On 2 April , another group of migrants in Durban was attacked [ by whom?
The escalating violence added tension to the upcoming South African general election. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Opposition to immigration. Further information: Criticism of multiculturalism. Main article: Immigration and crime. See also: Unit cohesion. See also: Economic results of migration. See also: Distance education , Knowledge transfer , Local hiring , Telecommuting , Periphery countries , and National innovation system.
See also: Stabilization of fragile states , Development aid , and Category:International development. See also: Immigration to Europe. See also: Immigration to Denmark and Islam in Denmark. Main article: Immigration to France. See also: Hungarian border barrier. See also: Immigration to Italy. Main article: Immigration to Sweden. See also: Vulnerable area. Main article: Immigration to the United Kingdom. Main article: Illegal immigration to India. Main articles: Ethnic issues in Japan and Human rights in Japan. See also: Venezuelan migrant crisis. Main article: Immigration policies of American labor unions.
Merriam Webster Dictionary. Annual Review of Political Science. Retrieved 27 September Political Studies. Retrieved 28 September Nation Building. Princeton University Press. ISBN Evidence from a Natural Experimen". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 10 May Home truths about the population panic" — via The Guardian. Spiegel Online. Retrieved 14 September The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original PDF on 20 October Retrieved 28 January Briggs, Jr". SAGE Publications. Retrieved 12 February Elsevier Health Sciences. Clinical Infectious Diseases. PMID Travel Medicine: Tales Behind the Science.
Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Retrieved 13 February The Washington Times. The Guardian. Public Health Reports. ISSN PMC International Journal of Intercultural Relations. Journal of Population Economics. S2CID Immigrants in an irregular situation, for example, may be less inclined to go for a test or to hospitals. Migrants, notably temporary migrants, often tend to have less extensive coverage by social security systems, including health. A report by the WHO regional office for Europe  that summarised the available evidence found, for example, a higher risk of ischaemic heart disease and stroke among the refugee and migrant population in Europe.
What is more, refugees and migrants in Europe have a higher incidence, prevalence and mortality rate for diabetes than the host population, with higher rates among women than men, though this depends on the country of origin. At the same time, migrants tend to have a lower risk for most neoplasms. What is more, not many countries ask for immigrant status in these registered data, neither with respect to country of birth nor nationality. In some countries where this information is not available, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand and the United States, ethnic origin or race are asked, using national categories, which partly cover the immigrant population alongside native-born with ethnic minority background.
In a number of countries, none of the above is registered. For instance, in Ontario, Canada, permanent immigrants accounted for Some countries, however, did not register a higher incidence. There are actually many caveats to consider when using the overall number of cases. First, it does not take into account the different demographic composition of both groups, which is an important bias, especially in countries where migration is a more recent phenomenon and immigrants are younger on average. What is more, the number of confirmed cases is driven by the national testing strategy. Limited testing capacities in some countries in the early phases of the pandemic hampered large-scale population testing. In addition to the broad overall testing capacity, the number of confirmed cases by origin is also impacted by the ability of each country to reach the most vulnerable groups, among them immigrants and their specific issues e.
Rates of testing were lower for immigrants compared with native-born in Ontario for instance Guttmann A et al. In Germany, for example, while nationality is in principle registered in the death registers, this data is currently not transmitted for the compilation of the national mortality statistics. A number of OECD countries do not have data on mortality for immigrants, but for ethnic minorities. This notably concerns the United Kingdom and the United States. The composition of the two groups differs but is partly overlapping. Age-adjusted mortality rates were even 3. In the United States, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC estimates death statistics standardised by age and accounting for differences in the geographic distribution.
France, the Netherlands and Sweden, for example, which have recent mortality data by origin but not by cause of death, observed an uneven impact of mortality by country of birth Figure 2. Higher excess mortality for immigrants was even observed among the youngest cohorts. Note: The share of immigrant deaths in France in the weeks 10 to 19 is compared with the share for the same period for the year In the longer term, further research is needed to estimate the long-term effect on the overall health of immigrants, including on their mental health. Some countries restrict this access to certain health services or make it subject to conditions.
Portugal temporarily regularised migrants in an irregular situation to ensure full access to the health care system. Similarly, Spain suspended the obligation to have valid documents in order to continue receiving aid covering basic needs. In Greece, access is available for minors, but only in case of emergency for adult immigrants. In the Czech Republic, migrants in an irregular situation might have to reimburse their treatment later. In some countries, such as Australia and Canada, regional authorities handled health care access matters, resulting in free full access across Canada and free access in some states in Australia. A number of countries also launched specific information campaigns for migrants Box 2 ; see also OECD forthcoming. In order to limit the spread of the virus, governments needed to provide immigrants with timely and accurate information on the pandemic itself, public health measures as well as access to medical services.
In many OECD countries, governments make use of digital communication channels to communicate with migrants in the current crisis context — combining the advantages of both dedicated online websites as well as communication via social media channels see OECD forthcoming for a comprehensive overview. Additionally, social media play a central role in advertising these online platforms and their content, as they allow directly targeting specific groups of migrants in their mother languages and responding to their questions. Social media have also proven to be the most important communication channel to track and respond to circulating misinformation.
This information has been further promoted and circulated through a Facebook page with over The platform actively answers questions by users and responds to comments containing misleading information on the topics concerned. The website also hosts a live chat to answer individual questions. This allows users to easily access the information relevant to their personal situation. In addition to online communication, intermediaries such as local authorities and NGOs play an important role in increasing the outreach of information provided by national governments.
Local intermediaries are able to directly reach out to immigrants living in their local communities, including those who are particularly isolated and hard to reach through online communication channels. Immigrants face a number of particular vulnerabilities in the current labour market situation. First, immigrants tend to be overrepresented among employees with temporary contracts, especially in European and Asian OECD countries. Immigrant also tend to have lower seniority and are overrepresented in cyclical sectors see OECD  for a discussion. Permit conditions may also enhance their vulnerability in terms of a job loss, if they do not allow for change of employers or professions.
Even where this is possible, the perceived additional administrative burden or uncertainty may prevent employers from considering migrants in a context of a relative abundance of workers. More generally, employers tend to be more selective during slack labour market conditions, and characteristics such as language difficulties, which may hamper productivity, are used to screen out immigrant applicants.
Even where such factors are lacking, a number of studies have shown that employers tend to selectively omit immigrants during an economic downturn Baert et al. Migrants have also fewer networks, and the importance of such networks tends to increase when labour market conditions worsen Behtoui, . New arrivals tend to be particularly hard hit during the crisis, with lasting negative impact on their long-term employment prospects. In Sweden, an analysis of the impact of the recession of the early s, which followed a period of high refugee inflows, showed a disproportionate negative impact of the recession on recent arrivals. This effect was strong and lasting — with much lower chances of being employed even 10 years after the crisis OECD,  ; see also Aydemir .
Second, the pandemic particularly affected employment in a number of services sectors where immigrants are largely overrepresented. This is particularly the case for hospitality and security and cleaning services, which have been hard hit during the lockdown Table 1. For example in the EU, immigrants account for a full quarter of employment in the hospitality industry, twice their share in overall employment. The likely impact on migrants is further heightened by the fact that hospitality is the sector where new arrivals are most strongly overrepresented when compared with long-term settled migrants OECD, .
Not only migrant employees, but also the self-employed tend to find themselves among the most vulnerable in the current situation. Their businesses also tend to be smaller and to have a lower capital stock. What is more, as is also the case among workers, many immigrant businesses find themselves in the hard-hit hospitality sector. Given this, and the uncertainty over the situation in the near future, it is still early to assess the impact on immigrants, but the available evidence clearly suggests a disproportionate impact in most countries.
Immigrants were particularly affected in Southern European countries, Ireland and Austria, where employment rates decreased by at least 4 percentage points, at least twice as much as for their native counterparts Figure 4. Among the exceptions with respect to the declining employment rates for immigrants are the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Finland and the Czech Republic, where no negative impact was observed thus far on the aggregate. The overall decline in employment rates — for both immigrants and native-born — tended to be more marked outside of Europe. At the same time, there was a much stronger volatility in these countries throughout the pandemic thus far.
The effect on employment may be associated with higher unemployment, higher inactivity or both. Indeed, it is conceivable that migrants who lost their jobs were discouraged by the difficult labour market situation and that those who were looking for a job before the pandemic stopped searching or were simply not available for a job because of the lockdown or because of family responsibilities due to schools closing.
This removed them from the labour force according to the ILO definition. In countries where large job retention schemes have been put place and where temporary employment is less frequent, most of the effect may result in a rise in inactivity. The latter may even be accompanied by a decrease in unemployment. In other cases, increases in the unemployment rate may absorb most of the effect. In the United States, while overall unemployment reached at its peak Prior to the pandemic, the unemployment rate for immigrants was lower than that of the native-born, but it is now 2 percentage points higher than the unemployment rate for native-born.
Part of the reason for the stronger overall unemployment reaction in the United States, and also Canada, is because retention schemes are not prevalent like in many European countries OECD, . To which degree immigrants are covered by these schemes is unfortunately not known. Nonetheless, the initial labour market figures suggest that they seem to have a less stabilising effect for immigrants. That being said, most OECD countries experienced increases in the unemployment rate for both native-born and immigrants, with a much larger increase for the latter.
Figure 5 provides an overview of the percentage point increase in unemployment rates comparing the most recent data from with the corresponding data from the same period of Among the countries for which data is available, in Norway, the United States, Canada, Sweden and Spain, immigrants experienced an increase of more than 4 percentage points in the unemployment rate. Among native-born, this was only the case in Canada and the United States.
Note: for Germany, Austria and Switzerland, data on native-born refer to nationals and immigrants to foreign nationals. In Austria, Norway and Germany, more than a third of the newly unemployed are immigrants or foreign nationals. In Greece, the changes in unemployment rates for immigrants and native-born even go in different directions. While the unemployment rate for immigrants increased by more than 2 percentage points, the unemployment rate declined slightly for the native-born. The situation is also continuously evolving.
This is evident for example in Denmark, where figures on the changes in unemployment since the beginning of March show that initially, there was a stronger increase among native-born. However, over time, the situation changed and since August, a higher incidence on immigrants has been observed. In a context of declining activity, increases in unemployment must be interpreted with caution, as they can reflect the higher weight of the unemployed under lower employment figures. While for most countries, increases in unemployment were associated with declines in employment rates, there are a few notable exceptions.
These include Belgium, France and Italy, where declines in employment were not mirrored in higher unemployment but rather by higher inactivity rates. These developments may partly reflect shortcomings in using labour force survey data in the early days of the pandemic — indeed, administrative data show a more consistent picture. In Belgium, for example, administrative data relating to temporary unemployment claims by nationality show an over-representation of workers of foreign nationality in temporary unemployment claims for the entire period March-August Likewise, in the figures on final payments to people who were temporarily unemployed for at least one day available until July , people of foreign nationality are over-represented by 7.
The impact on specific groups has thus far not been uniform. For example, the increase in unemployment rates for EU nationals in Germany and in Austria was about twice as high as the increase in unemployment rates for nationals, but still lower than for other migrant groups. In Spain, however, the unemployment rate for EU citizens jumped from In Norway, immigrant women from Central and Eastern Europe were the hardest-hit group thus far — with an increase in unemployment by more than 10 percentage points.
As for women, data from Germany also suggest a disproportionate impact Anger et al. Likewise, data on the initial impact on refugees show divergent trends. This increase is more than three times higher than the unemployment increases for nationals in Austria and Germany. In Sweden, in contrast, first data from the public employment service on the labour market status of persons 90 days after the finalisation of the introduction programme for refugees and their family members do not show higher incidences of unemployment or non-employment. This somewhat surprising result, which stands in contrast with the observed higher incidence of unemployment as a whole, may be attributable to the fact that the Swedish authorities prolonged the duration of the various wage subsidy schemes by an additional year.
This is a measure that disproportionately benefits recent refugees. Interestingly, while the former group had a higher probability to lose their job, they appeared to be slightly less likely to be furloughed. This means that BAME immigrants were more likely to have lost their jobs permanently instead of being granted leave of absence. Data on the impact on native-born descendants of immigrants is currently only available for Norway. In that county, the increase in the unemployment rate among descendants was, at 7. To date, there is little evidence on the impact by education level, but the scarce evidence suggests that the crisis predominantly affect lesser-skilled immigrants.
In Italy, for example, foreign nationals without educational credentials experienced a decline in the employment rate of more than 10 percentage points — twice the decline of those with at least an upper secondary degree. Likewise, the observed increase in unemployment in the United States was twice as large among immigrants with at most a high-school degree than for their peers with higher degrees.
In addition, differences by education level were less pronounced for the native-born. First indicators on vacancies already suggest that the negative impact on immigrants is likely to magnify disproportionately. Facilitating stay in case of unemployment and reduced income. Migrant workers who lose their jobs often struggle to comply with the conditions of their residency permits. In response, many countries have extended permits or removed obligations to leave, to prevent legally staying migrants from falling into an irregular situation.
Spain, Greece, the Czech Republic and Germany, for example, did not withdraw permits for migrants who lost their job during the pandemic. Other countries including France, Slovenia, Estonia, Italy, Ireland, Poland, and Portugal automatically extended or renewed permits for a certain period, in some cases until after the end of the state of emergency, in other cases until a pre-defined calendar date. In countries where the validity of certain work permits is conditioned on reaching a certain level of income, for example in Australia, Austria and the United Kingdom, additional flexibility was introduced. Extending coverage of support measures. A number of OECD countries modified their access to, and the duration of, unemployment benefits, with some changes likely to benefit migrants in particular as these often have less stable contracts and a lower contribution history.
As a result, workers do not need to prove a sufficient number of days as an employed worker in order to receive support. Similarly, in Spain, the minimum duration of work required to qualify for unemployment benefits, working days during the last 6 years, was suspended. France modified the regulations for partial unemployment to employees affected by the lockdown. Sweden extended the period of subsidised jobs by one year; a measure that particularly benefits migrants — especially recent arrivals — as these are a main target group. Many OECD countries also introduced support measures for employers and businesses. These schemes tend to be general and hence open to foreigners as well. One example is the emergency law of March in Italy, introducing a wide set of measures to address the economic impact of the crisis.
Sweden prolonged financial support to newly started businesses, among which businesses operated by immigrants are overrepresented. Work permits are often restricted to a specific sector or employer. In the Czech Republic, for instance, migrant workers who have lost their job could receive authorisation to change employer as well as sector. In Finland, foreign workers with valid residence permit can change employer or field of employment until the end of October New Zealand has allowed temporary foreign workers in essential services to adjust their work hours and perform different roles for their current employer or their current role in a different workplace.
Policies introduced also extended working right of other migrant groups, including students and asylum seekers. In Belgium for example, until the end of June, asylum seekers hosted by the employer were allowed to work immediately, instead of a previous waiting period of four months. Ireland, France and Belgium for instance, allowed international students to work more hours, while Canada and Australia removed a previous cap on the maximum number of hours international students may work for those employed in essential services.
Easing foreign credential recognition and other measures. Italy as well as several provinces in Canada and several states in the United States enabled a temporary licencing of doctors with foreign medical degrees. Chile and Spain facilitated recruitment in the national health services, while other countries including Belgium, Germany, Ireland and Luxembourg expedited applications for the recognition of foreign qualifications of health professionals. France allowed the employment of foreign-trained health workers in non-medical occupations in the health sector. In Italy, individuals in an irregular situation who can prove their presence in the country prior to 8 March, and are working in the agricultural or domestic care sector are now eligible for a new regularisation pathway.
By the beginning of July, over 30 requests were submitted, the vast majority from domestic workers. Apart from these administrative changes, few countries have provided specific targeted support measures. The Norwegian government proposed a package of measures of NOK million targeted towards immigrants, aimed at providing more assistance and increasing competence to facilitate swifter participation and inclusion into the labour market.
Finally, Germany has implemented a number of specific support measures for migrant entrepreneurs, including an online platform with information on available crisis support measures in five languages and a network of dedicated caseworkers to support ailing migrant business in all federal states, including with respect to the filing of applications for state aid. The progressively comprehensive closure of schools across OECD countries has made online learning opportunities critical for education at all levels.
Although schools are better equipped with digital tools than ever before, access to digital learning opportunities is still not equal: children of immigrants tend to be less equipped to face this new transition. In most OECD countries with significant shares of children of immigrants Figure 6 , students with immigrant parents are less likely than students with native-born parents at the age of 15 to have access to a computer and an internet connection at home. However, in spite of the gaps, in all countries, the overwhelming majority of students with immigrant parents do have access to a computer and to an internet connection.
However, children with immigrant parents tend to be overrepresented among those with a low economic, social and cultural status compared to those with native-born parents Figure 7. In Denmark, Slovenia, Iceland and Greece, more than half of children of immigrants aged 15 were among the bottom quarter of the economic, social and cultural status index. Prior OECD work has shown that students from such disadvantaged backgrounds are less likely to have access to a quiet place to study than their more advantaged peers and to be proficient in using technology for schoolwork — already before the pandemic OECD, .
Indeed, students with immigrant parents are consistently less likely to have access to a quiet place to study, with the exception of foreign-born students in New Zealand, but again the differences are not large and in all OECD countries, at least three out of four children of immigrants report to have access to a quiet place to study at home. Students with immigrant parents tend have parents with, on average, lower education and poorer socio-economic resources, and who may have a lower understanding of the education system. Students with immigrant parents thus tend to face additional difficulties compared to their peers with native-born parents.
Statistically significant differences between the percentages of students with and without immigrant parents are shown in a darker tone. The lack of fluency in the language spoken in the host country can exacerbate difficulties with home schooling. Language barriers are more challenging when instruction is online, and in particular as it reinforces the potential lack of parental support. In the context of online learning, and without daily contacts with peers and few interactions with teachers, it can be more difficult for students with immigrant parents to overcome these language barriers and learn the host country language. It is particularly challenging in some countries, where the proportion of students who do not speak the host country language is high.
While the available comparative data on student disadvantage is based on PISA data and thus refers to students at the age of 15, the negative impact on children of immigrants is likely to be higher for smaller children. Smaller children likely depend more on parental support, and the impact of not having many chances to practice the host-country language during several months may impact particularly at younger ages see also OECD forthcoming. During this time, a number distance-learning solutions such as online classrooms and broadcasts, as well as computer-assisted learning were implemented to bridge the gap between schools and learners, but the impact on education outcomes remains uncertain, especially for children of immigrants.
In terms of material resources, however, there is little evidence of a disproportionate impact. In fact, in many OECD countries, the computer-student ratio is actually greater in disadvantaged schools than in advantaged schools. In reaction to the pandemic, many countries have distributed computers to all students in need, which should further lower a negative impact on disadvantaged groups such as children of immigrants. Likewise, first evidence on the impact on the suspension of final exams on children of immigrants shows divergent influences. Research from the Netherlands Swart et al. Children with migrant parents are expected to be overrepresented among this group. In contrast, for those at the end of secondary school, comparison with data from previous years suggests that children with migrant parents are more likely than children with native-born parents to have graduated due to the fact that there was no central exam Swart, Visser and Zumbuehl, .
Indeed, in a number of OECD countries such as France and Norway, there have been reports of school disengagement by children of immigrants following the pandemic. Most countries were forced to end in-person integration courses as restrictions were imposed, though many have recently started again with in-person courses. While some countries had online language course options available prior to the pandemic, such programmes had not been scaled to reach every eligible migrant. Several countries halted their integration programmes altogether. Across the OECD, volunteer organisations with language and integration missions also paused their operations.Eligibility criteria for EEA citizens are quite Immigration: Impact Of EU Immigrants and depend on a range of Immigration: Impact Of EU Immigrants such as whether they are, or have been, in Immigration: Impact Of EU Immigrants genuine and effective work " or have a "genuine chance" of being hired. Other Nature Of Man In Lord Of The Flies expatriate communities in the country are Armenians Immigration: Impact Of EU Immigrants, AustraliansTurksChinese Americans Immigration: Impact Of EU Immigrants,  Filipinos Bosnians  and many others. Main article: Immigration: Impact Of EU Immigrants to France. SVT Nyheter Immigration: Impact Of EU Immigrants Swedish. With thanks to Jonathan Wadsworth and Cinzia Rienzo for helpful comments on previous Immigration: Impact Of EU Immigrants.