✯✯✯ Month Of War Jay Winik Summary

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Month Of War Jay Winik Summary



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Jay Winik - 1944: FDR and the Year That Changed History

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Arts In Review. Letters to the Editor. Folk Economics and the Left. Pandemic Policy Went Off the Rails He sent a note to Grant saying that he did not wish to surrender his army just yet but was willing to discuss how Grant's terms would affect the Confederacy. Grant, suffering from a throbbing headache, stated that "It looks as if Lee still means to fight. This corps traveled 30 miles 48 km in 21 hours to reach the cavalry.

Edward O. Sheridan deployed his three divisions of cavalry along a low ridge to the southwest of Appomattox Court House. Gordon attacked Sheridan's cavalry and quickly forced back the first line under Brevet Brig. Charles H. The next line, held by Brig. Ranald S. Mackenzie and George Crook , slowed the Confederate advance. Lee's cavalry saw these Union forces and immediately withdrew and rode off towards Lynchburg. James Longstreet 's corps to the northeast. Colonel Charles Venable of Lee's staff rode in at this time and asked for an assessment, and Gordon gave him a reply he knew Lee did not want to hear: "Tell General Lee I have fought my corps to a frazzle, and I fear I can do nothing unless I am heavily supported by Longstreet's corps.

Many of Lee's officers, including Longstreet, agreed that surrendering the army was the only option left. The only notable officer opposed to surrender was Longstreet's chief of artillery, Brig. Edward Porter Alexander , who predicted that if Lee surrendered then "every other Confederate army will follow suit". Lee decided to request a suspension of fighting while he sought to learn the terms of surrender Grant was proposing to offer. A white linen dish towel was used as a Confederate flag of truce and was carried by one of Longstreet's staff officers into the lines of General Custer, who was part of Sheridan's command.

At a. Grant received Lee's first letter on the morning of April 9 as he was traveling to meet Sheridan. Grant recalled his migraine seemed to disappear when he read Lee's letter, [12] and he handed it to his assistant Rawlins to read aloud before composing his reply:. General, Your note of this date is but this moment, A. I am at this writing about four miles West of Walker's Church and will push forward to the front for the purpose of meeting you.

Notice sent to me on this road where you wish the interview to take place. Grant's response was remarkable in that it let the defeated Lee choose the place of his surrender. Marshall scrutinized Appomattox Court House, a small village of roughly twenty buildings that served as a waystation for travelers on the Richmond-Lynchburg Stage Road. With gunshots still being heard on Gordon's front and Union skirmishers still advancing on Longstreet's front, Lee received a message from Grant. After several hours of correspondence between Grant and Lee, a cease-fire was enacted and Grant received Lee's request to discuss surrender terms.

Dressed in his ceremonious white uniform, Lee waited for Grant to arrive. Grant, whose headache had ended when he received Lee's note, arrived at the McLean house in a mud-spattered uniform—a government-issue sack coat with trousers tucked into muddy boots, no sidearms, and with only his tarnished shoulder straps showing his rank. Lee brought the attention back to the issue at hand, and Grant offered the same terms he had before:. In accordance with the substance of my letter to you of the 8th inst. One copy to be given to an officer designated by me, the other to be retained by such officer or officers as you may designate. The officers to give their individual paroles not to take up arms against the Government of the United States until properly exchanged, and each company or regimental commander sign a like parole for the men of their commands.

The arms, artillery and public property to be parked and stacked, and turned over to the officer appointed by me to receive them. This will not embrace the side-arms of the officers, nor their private horses or baggage. This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to their homes, not to be disturbed by United States authority so long as they observe their paroles and the laws in force where they may reside. The terms were as generous as Lee could hope for; his men would not be imprisoned or prosecuted for treason.

Officers were allowed to keep their sidearms, horses, and personal baggage. Parker , a Native American of the Seneca tribe , and completed around 4 p. Grant soon visited the Confederate army, and then he and Lee sat on the McLean home's porch and met with visitors such as Longstreet and George Pickett before the two men left for their capitals. On April 10, Lee gave his farewell address to his army. Chamberlain was the Union officer selected to lead the ceremony. In his memoirs entitled The Passing of the Armies , Chamberlain reflected on what he witnessed on April 12, , as the Army of Northern Virginia marched in to surrender their arms and their colors:. The momentous meaning of this occasion impressed me deeply. I resolved to mark it by some token of recognition, which could be no other than a salute of arms.

Well aware of the responsibility assumed, and of the criticisms that would follow, as the sequel proved, nothing of that kind could move me in the least. The act could be defended, if needful, by the suggestion that such a salute was not to the cause for which the flag of the Confederacy stood, but to its going down before the flag of the Union.

My main reason, however, was one for which I sought no authority nor asked forgiveness. Before us in proud humiliation stood the embodiment of manhood: men whom neither toils and sufferings, nor the fact of death, nor disaster, nor hopelessness could bend from their resolve; standing before us now, thin, worn, and famished, but erect, and with eyes looking level into ours, waking memories that bound us together as no other bond;—was not such manhood to be welcomed back into a Union so tested and assured?

Instructions had been given; and when the head of each division column comes opposite our group, our bugle sounds the signal and instantly our whole line from right to left, regiment by regiment in succession, gives the soldier's salutation, from the "order arms" to the old "carry"—the marching salute. Gordon at the head of the column, riding with heavy spirit and downcast face, catches the sound of shifting arms, looks up, and, taking the meaning, wheels superbly, making with himself and his horse one uplifted figure, with profound salutation as he drops the point of his sword to the boot toe; then facing to his own command, gives word for his successive brigades to pass us with the same position of the manual,—honor answering honor.

On our part not a sound of trumpet more, nor roll of drum; not a cheer, nor word nor whisper of vain-glorying, nor motion of man standing again at the order, but an awed stillness rather, and breath-holding, as if it were the passing of the dead! Chamberlain's account has been questioned by historian William Marvel, who claims that "few promoted their own legends more actively and successfully than he did". Bartlett 's division and that he did not mention any "salute" in his contemporary letters, but only in his memoirs written many decades later when most other eyewitnesses had already died. At the surrender ceremonies, about 28, Confederate soldiers passed by and stacked their arms. This reference does not include the 7, who were captured at Sailor's Creek three days earlier, who were treated as prisoners of war.

While General George Meade who was not present at the meeting reportedly shouted that "it's all over" upon hearing the surrender was signed, roughly , Confederates remained in the field, but were mostly starving and disillusioned. Many of these were scattered throughout the South in garrisons or guerrilla bands while the rest were concentrated in three major Confederate commands. General Joseph E. Johnston 's army in North Carolina, the most threatening of the remaining Confederate armies, surrendered to Maj. William T. The 98, Confederate troops who laid down their weapons the largest surrender of the war marked the virtual end of the conflict. President Jefferson Davis met with his Confederate Cabinet for the last time on May 5, in Washington, Georgia , and officially dissolved the Confederate government.

Also on May 26, , the Camp Napoleon Council of Native American tribes, including a number that had sided with the Confederacy, met in Oklahoma and decided to have commissioners offer peace with the United States. There were several more small battles after Lee's surrender. The Battle of Palmito Ranch , east of Brownsville, Texas , on May 12—13, , is commonly regarded as the final land battle of the war ironically a Confederate victory which was followed soon after by the surrender of the Confederate forces. Commander James Iredell Waddell in command of the CSS Shenandoah , a commerce raider of the Confederate States Navy , was the last to surrender when he lowered the Confederate flag in Liverpool and surrendered his vessel to the British government on November 6, Waddell was halfway around the world in the Pacific when he learned the war had ended.

Lee never forgot Grant's magnanimity during the surrender, and for the rest of his life would not tolerate an unkind word about Grant in his presence. Confederate General Longstreet spoke well of Grant, saying he was grateful to Grant for a cheerful greeting and providing him a cigar at Appomattox, as well as later efforts by Grant to get Longstreet a pardon and appointing him to a federal position in New Orleans after Grant became president.

During the Civil War Centennial , the United States Post Office issued five postage stamps commemorating the th anniversaries of famous battles, as they occurred over a four-year period, beginning with the Battle of Fort Sumter Centennial issue of The Battle of Shiloh commemorative stamp was issued in , the Battle of Gettysburg in , the Battle of the Wilderness in , and the Appomattox Centennial commemorative stamp in The Civil War Trust a division of the American Battlefield Trust and its partners have acquired and preserved acres 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Surrender of Robert E. Battle of the American Civil War. Appomattox campaign. Further information: Appomattox Campaign Union order of battle.

Further information: Appomattox campaign Confederate order of battle. Chamberlain, The Passing of the Armies , pp. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Further information: Conclusion of the American Civil War.

American Battlefield Protection Program. National Park Service, U. Department of the Interior. Retrieved July 12, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved June 26, Vintage Books. ISBN Calkins, p. The Old West: Soldiers. New York: Time-Life Books. Retrieved June 16, The American Presidency Project. University of California — Santa Barbara. Archived from the original on August 27, Retrieved August 26, Retrieved February 4, Retrieved June 27, Accessed May 25, Bodart, Gaston Calkins, Chris. The Appomattox Campaign, March 29 — April 9, Conshohocken, PA: Combined Books, Chamberlain, Joshua L. New York: Bantam Books, First published by G.

Putnam's Sons. Davis, Burke. To Appomattox: Nine April Days, New York: Eastern Acorn Press reprint, First published New York: Rinehart, Eicher, David J.

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