⌚ The Influence Of Medicalization

Thursday, June 10, 2021 9:26:12 PM

The Influence Of Medicalization



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Lesson 26 The Medicalization of Society

In cases of incompetent minors, informed consent is usually required from the parent rather than the 'best interests standard' although a parens patriae order may apply, allowing the court to dispense with parental consent in cases of refusal. Research involving deception is controversial given the requirement for informed consent. Deception typically arises in social psychology, when researching a particular psychological process requires that investigators deceive subjects.

For example, in the Milgram experiment , researchers wanted to determine the willingness of participants to obey authority figures despite their personal conscientious objections. They had authority figures demand that participants deliver what they thought was an electric shock to another research participant. For the study to succeed, it was necessary to deceive the participants so they believed that the subject was a peer and that their electric shocks caused the peer actual pain. Nonetheless, research involving deception prevents subjects from exercising their basic right of autonomous informed decision-making and conflicts with the ethical principle of respect for persons. The Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct set by the American Psychological Association says that psychologists may conduct research that includes a deceptive compartment only if they can both justify the act by the value and importance of the study's results and show they could not obtain the results by some other way.

Moreover, the research should bear no potential harm to the subject as an outcome of deception, either physical pain or emotional distress. Finally, the code requires a debriefing session in which the experimenter both tells the subject about the deception and gives subject the option of withdrawing the data. In some U. Other countries with such laws e. Germany require that the information giver be properly certified to make sure that no abortion is carried out for the financial gain of the abortion provider and to ensure that the decision to have an abortion is not swayed by any form of incentive.

Some informed consent laws have been criticized for allegedly using "loaded language in an apparently deliberate attempt to 'personify' the fetus," [37] but those critics acknowledge that "most of the information in the [legally mandated] materials about abortion comports with recent scientific findings and the principles of informed consent", although "some content is either misleading or altogether incorrect. As children often lack the decision making ability or legal power competence to provide true informed consent for medical decisions, it often falls on parents or legal guardians to provide informed permission for medical decisions.

This "consent by proxy" usually works reasonably well, but can lead to ethical dilemmas when the judgment of the parents or guardians and the medical professional differ with regard to what constitutes appropriate decisions "in the best interest of the child". Children who are legally emancipated , and certain situations such as decisions regarding sexually transmitted diseases or pregnancy, or for unemancipated minors who are deemed to have medical decision making capacity, may be able to provide consent without the need for parental permission depending on the laws of the jurisdiction the child lives in.

The American Academy of Pediatrics encourages medical professionals also to seek the assent of older children and adolescents by providing age appropriate information to these children to help empower them in the decision making process. Research on children has benefited society in many ways. The only effective way to establish normal patterns of growth and metabolism is to do research on infants and young children. When addressing the issue of informed consent with children, the primary response is parental consent. This is valid, although only legal guardians are able to consent for a child, not adult siblings.

For example, emancipated minors may consent to medical treatment, and minors can also consent in an emergency. Informed consent is part of the ethical clinical research as well, in which a human subject voluntarily confirms his or her willingness to participate in a particular clinical trial , after having been informed of all aspects of the trial that are relevant to the subject's decision to participate. Informed consent is documented by means of a written, signed, and dated informed consent form. Nowadays, medical research is overseen by an ethics committee that also oversees the informed consent process.

As the medical guidelines established in the Nuremberg Code were imported into the ethical guidelines for the social sciences , informed consent became a common part of the research procedure. Here, research often involves low or no risk for participants, unlike in many medical experiments. Second, the mere knowledge that they participate in a study can cause people to alter their behavior, as in the Hawthorne Effect : "In the typical lab experiment, subjects enter an environment in which they are keenly aware that their behavior is being monitored, recorded, and subsequently scrutinized. List exemplifies the potential dilemma that can result: "if one were interested in exploring whether, and to what extent, race or gender influences the prices that buyers pay for used cars, it would be difficult to measure accurately the degree of discrimination among used car dealers who know that they are taking part in an experiment.

This is commonly done after weighting the risk to study participants versus the benefit to society and whether participants are present in the study out of their own wish and treated fairly. The birth of new online media, such as social media, has complicated the idea of informed consent. In an online environment people pay little attention to Terms of Use agreements and can subject themselves to research without thorough knowledge. This issue came to the public light following a study conducted by Facebook Inc.

The study then analyzed if the users status updates changed during the different conditions. The study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The lack of informed consent led to outrage among many researchers and users. However, supports of Facebook claim that Facebook details that they have the right to use information for research in their terms of use. Others pointed out that this specific study is not along but that news organizations constantly try out different headlines using algorithms to elicit emotions and garner clicks or Facebook shares.

Still, others say that Facebook broke the law when conducting the experiment on user that didn't give informed consent. The Facebook study controversy raises numerous questions about informed consent and the differences in the ethical review process between publicly and privately funded research. Other, long-standing controversies underscore the role for conflicts of interest among medical school faculty and researchers. For example, coverage of University of California UC medical school faculty members has included news of ongoing corporate payments to researchers and practitioners from companies that market and produce the very devices and treatments they recommend to patients.

Patients in UC hospitals deserve the most reliable surgical devices and medication…and they shouldn't be treated as subjects in expensive experiments. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Process for obtaining subject approval prior to treatment or research. This article is about consent to medical or research procedures. For consent in other contexts, see Consent. For the House episode, see Informed Consent House.

Walter Reed authored these informed consent documents in for his research on yellow fever. Tarlow v. District of Columbia Dynamic consent Free, prior and informed consent Human experimentation Human experimentation in the United States Informed assent Informed consent in sociocratic decision-making Informed refusal International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use Mature minor doctrine Minors and abortion Parental consent Patient safety Safe, sane and consensual Schloendorff v.

Society of New York Hospital Scott v. Clinical drug trials Studying the safety and efficacy of new pharmaceuticals. World Health Organization. Retrieved 14 September AMA Journal of Ethics. PMID Retrieved 13 Sep A History and Theory of Informed Consent. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN Principles of Biomedical Ethics Fourth ed. Archived from the original PDF on Mehta; et al. Academic Emergency Medicine.

Springer Publishing Company. Retrieved 26 September Sociology of Health and Illness. ISSN The New York Times. New York. Retrieved 5 March A history and theory of informed consent Online ed. Journal of Medical Ethics. S2CID Legacies in ethics and medicine. New York: Science History Publications. The silent world of doctor and patient Johns Hopkins Paperbacks ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Lectures on the Duties and Qualifications of a Physician. Do you think that, being young children after all, they expect that one day the Gender Fairy will pay a visit? After all, nobody is better at magical thinking than young children , and raising a girl as a boy, or vice-versa, is implicitly, if not explicitly, affirming the child in the belief that one day her wish will come true.

After all, the Gender Fairy could someday deliver a real-life nightmare. Benji, a Canadian activist, writer, and YouTuber , writes here about how she was recently suspended from Twitter and subsequently Medium for she believes referring to the biological sex of a certain UK trans woman. Benji joins many other women whose voices have been censored by Silicon Valley tech companies. Despite being silenced on some platforms, Benji is still very much active on the Internet. See the bottom of this article for ways to contact her and to see her work. Benji wrote another piece for 4thWaveNow earlier this year, about her less-than-supportive experiences in a Toronto trans-teen support group. We will continue to offer 4thWaveNow as a platform for others who find themselves in a similar situation; please let us know if you would like to be published here.

On the morning of December 11th, I was tweeting away as usual when at am, I tried to reply to a tweet and this is what I saw:. I had just recently reached followers so I was very upset. I can only assume that this happened because I referred to a trans woman, Katy Montgomerie, as a male. On December 7th, 4th Wave Now tweeted a thread about an affirmation-only parent support group on Facebook, specifically about a thread in that group that had developed on the topic of families with multiple trans children.

Katy Montgomerie replied in the thread, claiming that families with multiple trans kids are statistically likely and nothing to be concerned about. Katy then went on to say that the parents who run 4th Wave Now are anti trans; desperate not to have trans kids. The reality is, that the daughter of one of the founders of 4th Wave Now is a 22 year old, detransitioned lesbian. I tweeted:. Where are you getting this?

You presume to know the female motivators for transition when you are in fact male. What do you base this on? She says she is a friend to detrans people but attacks one of the few websites —4thWaveNow— that will amplify our writing about our experiences. Obviously, she has her own ideology to propagate and this is her method. I would advise detransitioned people to steer clear of her on Twitter and Medium. As soon as I understood that I had been suspended, I appealed to Twitter. Predictably, they said they were looking into it but initially did not respond beyond that. I have been using twitter for many years, mostly for lesbian activism. I believe that this is the result of targeted reporting by homophobes who do not like what I have to say.

I appealed to Twitter but they have not explained why my tweet was hateful or why it rises to the level of an indefinite suspension. I am appealing to you because for me, Twitter is a powerful networking tool and I need it to stay in contact with journalists and other professionals, as part of my activism. They immediately replied, saying that they were looking into it. On the morning of December 23rd, I awoke to find this response in my email. As you can imagine, I did not wish violence on anyone or say anything cruel or tweet with malicious intent.

Twitter is woefully unable to screen reported tweets and as a result this has happened to me repeatedly. What makes me so angry is that extremist ideologues know this is how Twitter works, and they are meticulous in their reporting. Their goal is to get the most vocal women who question gender ideology off of the platform and they know exactly how to do it. On December 25th Merry Christmas! I checked in to see what people on Twitter were saying about GNC Centric… and they were saying my Medium account where this article was originally posted on December 23rd had been suspended.

I suspect that this happened because I mentioned Katy Montgomerie— and the fact that they were male—in my Medium piece. Since Medium has very similar policies to Twitter, I will not bother attempting to appeal this suspension. When I was first suspended from Twitter, I planned to post much more on Medium; what I used to post as Twitter threads I would now format as short articles. The most direct way of contacting me now is through email. Jonathan Swift, Anglo-Irish author, was horrified at how British politics unfairly exacerbated the suffering of the Irish. Having made several unsuccessful appeals to Parliament to enact policies to relieve the famine, he turned to writing. It is a melancholy object to those, who walk through our great hospitals, or travel in their maternity wards, when they see the hallways, the corridors, and the newborn nurseries crowded with infants whose differentiated genitalia are at odds with their undifferentiated gender identity.

These infants instead of being allowed to naturally discover their gender identity as they mature, are forced to endure the suggestions of their parts and pieces, and of the external socializations that follow. It is common knowledge that gender identity is separate from biological sex, yet the correlation of anatomy and identity is unfortunately strong enough to imply effect to the unenlightened mind. Infants attached to penises usually become men, and those with vaginae usually become women.

However, any good scientist knows that correlation does not equal causation. If a parent is likewise woke, they will know that genitalia are not predictive of gender. In the absence of social constructs and family influence, penis-babies would be just as likely to discover they are girls as boys, and vagina-babies can likewise grow up to be men or women. However, when parents are not enlightened, they will assume that sex predicts gender identity, and risk irreversible damage to their offspring. Witness the homunculus with neither penis nor vagina, and yet both simultaneously, that almost universally develops one or the other. As with embryology, gender identity is undifferentiated at creation, and takes form later in life.

It is even more inconvenient that gravid women are told of these fetal bits during a sonographic exam at mid-gestation, and use the information to inform absurd celebrations of the implied gender of their fetus. Therein lies the rub. Society is burdened by the downstream effects of such confusion. Children see and even touch their genitalia and will naturally wonder what their genitalia means. They struggle to understand themselves in the context of this biology and the associated social construct. It contributes to their melancholy, lethargy, and isolation, and is evidenced by high rates of substance abuse and, indeed, of suicide.

Our impaired youth are a scourge on society and threaten our future as a productive member of the global community. As a good and just society which we have never been and yet strive to be , we should endeavor to abolish the horrific consequences of biological sex biasing the pure development of gender identity. But my intention is very far from being confined to provide only for the children of unenlightened parents: it is of a much greater extent, and shall take in the whole number of infants born in our country. Since all children are born with undiscovered gender identity, then they should be permitted to develop without the influence of biologic sex.

Other members of society are encouraged to change their appearance to match their gender identity, so I know no reason why infants should not be accorded the same basic human right. Since their gender identity is undetermined, so then should be their apparent biology. My modest proposal is that all infants be unburdened of the external ornaments of their biologic sex , so that their gender identity may develop without the influence of parental expectations or societal norms. The first step is the outlawing of ultrasound to visualize the fetal bits, far less to hazard a guess at the gender this has worked well in China and India. In the delivery room, this will necessitate the immediate but temporary separation of mother and child so that the mother remains unaware of whether she has birthed a penis-baby or a vagina-baby.

Fortunately, the existing medicalization of childbirth should make this separation basically unnoticeable to the modern parturient. For penis-babies, all the genitalia are external, and will be removed by phallectomy, scrotectomy, and orchiectomy. Urination will be by a urethral meatus remaining on the perineum. Some may argue against the expense of two million such operations per annum , but my calculations confirm that these costs will be offset by savings from the absence of circumcisions and also by the elimination of urinals from all elementary school restrooms.

For vagina-babies, the vaginal orifice may be narrowed by creating a smooth covering of skin, created by cutting and appositioning the labia minora and labia majora, and by clitorectomy. Sadly, American surgeons are not properly trained to perform such a complicated surgery, especially on an hours-old newborn. Fortunately, there are many expert surgeons in Africa and the Middle East, where these procedures are frequently performed. In the West, these surgeries are known as Class 3 genital mutilations and they are currently banned for their cruelty. Foreign surgeons would be glad for the opportunity to come to the West and rebrand their skills as gender-identity-neutralization surgeries, simultaneously reeducating our medical community and earning a handsome living.

Newborn ovaries and corpus uteri may be left in situ through childhood because in their quiescence they are irrelevant and invisible both to the individual and to society and would not influence exploration of gender identity, and also because they will be needed for the continuation of the species. Of course, by the age of 10 or 11, all children will need to decide on a gender identity, start on estrogen or testosterone, and embark on a gender-creation surgery, including choice of mastectomy or augmentation, phalloplasty, hysterectomy, or neovagina creation. In the event a child chooses no gender at all, they would have a smorgasbord of available medical options ranging from a clean perineum to, perhaps, both a penis and a vagina.

Unfortunately, some of these surgeries especially the phalloplasty do not currently yield the best results, neither cosmetic nor functional. In the event that we have not discovered how to manufacture sperm out of whole cloth by then, we will need to remember to keep our sperm vaults properly powered and staffed, lest the electricity fail and our species go extinct. Even better, by then we will have perfected the uterus transplant and will enjoy a large supply of unwanted natal uteri to transplant into transwomen who desire to breed.

For those readers who remain unconvinced, I offer some additional benefits for their consideration. Firstly, our society is plagued by masculine toxicity, presumably mediated by testosterone. Since all penis-babies will be castrati , the only testosterone in our society will be distributed by pharmacies. Therefore, we will have the opportunity to titrate the dosage of testosterone to prevent toxic masculinity. No more rape-culture. No more me-too. No more manspreading on the subway. Secondly, we will no longer be confused by pronouns. By the end of adolescence, every individual will have chosen their gender, and will have had bespoke chemical and surgical treatments so that their external appearances exactly match their gender identities.

Gender identity is laid bare for all to see! Thirdly, we will no longer be plagued by sexism. Because all women will have chosen to be women with full knowledge of what it means to fully be a woman, they should not resent any lack of opportunity, pay disparity, or what not. Lastly, this modest proposal is only a beginning. Once we successfully sever biology from gender, we will have made the first big step towards a wondrous post-biological human existence where anybody can be anyone, and we are all equal in the eyes of our Creator and in the eyes of each other.

There will be no reason to argue, struggle, and fight for our natural rights and deserved equalities … what the Creator has not provided, science will. A Brave New World awaits us! I Profess in the sincerity of my Heart that I have not the least personal Interest in endeavouring to promote this necessary Work having no other Motive than the publick Good of my Country, providing for Infants, and curing gender dysphoria. I have no Children who might be directly affected by this proposal; the youngest being fifteen Years old, and my Wife past Child-bearing. Carey Callahan is a family therapist, writer, and organizer advocating for responsible healthcare for gender dysphoria.

You can find her writing at medium. One of the sadder parts of being detransitioned and public about it is that the parents find you. That they need to be open to the possibility their kid may need their pubertal process disrupted, may need to begin what could within a couple of years turn into a life time commitment to cross sex hormones, and could need surgeries to socially function. I am not, and probably never will be, your family therapist. Those means include punishing mental health professionals by threatening their livelihoods, calling DHS on non-compliant parents , slandering youth GD researchers whose research documents majority youth desistance , harassing researchers whose research suggests the existence of a new cohort of youth GD diagnoses that may have vastly different outcomes than previous cohorts , or slandering and harassing even the reporters who acknowledge these events are happening.

Pediatric transition has always been a troublesome topic for me. My efforts to advocate for resources and training for detransition mental healthcare have consistently put me in positions where I have to pick a side about pediatric transition. My choices have been: critique pediatric transition, be labeled a transphobe and be cut off from opportunities within the trans healthcare community to build an infrastructure for supporting detransitioners OR focus only on detransition care, and endorse pediatric transition. I know trans adults like that, and their medical transitions reduced their GD to such a level that they could function well, with loving partners and meaningful work. My insistence that any kid I raise be a legal adult before making these choices is based on knowing trans adults who have been surprised by the challenges of their long term healthcare.

I am not going to create a situation where my kid is 25 and gets to blame their mom for pain when they orgasm , fusion of their uterus and cervix , reduced mitochondrial function , or straight up never having an orgasm. No way am I running the risk of allowing my kid to halt their puberty with Lupron shots and create a future spending big bucks at the dentist, rheumatologist, and endocrinologist. After a hysterectomy you are dependent on HRT for your lifetime and need to prioritize having health insurance both for the HRT and the complications following the hysterectomy. Do the teenagers in your life know about co-pays, or how to get a referral to a specialist, or what COBRA is? But if parenting teens were just about creating sane rules and explaining how the world works, teen boys could be trusted to shower regularly, teen girls could be trusted to use school bathrooms without putting fights on Snapchat, and Smirnoff Ice would have a significantly smaller market share.

You have the power although only if you and your coparent are on the same pag e to keep your kid from initiating medical transition until that day. That day will roll around quicker than you think. What this means is that cultivating a positive relationship in which you have credibility and influence with that person you made is paramount. From my work as a family therapist I can tell you being able to do that, when that person is in their teens and twenties, is a spiritual triumph. But in actuality that answer above is the recipe for every successful relationship- kids, spouses, friends, coworkers. Having children hit puberty is a fantastic way to find out all your weird personal myths about how relationships should go and how exactly they do not work.

People love to be understood and most people love to talk about themselves. People are most relaxed when rules, roles, and boundaries are clear, and people love to be relaxed. But the least painful way to learn about the process of considering logical consequences is from navigating logical and consistent consequences doled out by your parents. I am NOT saying you can detrans your kid. I am absolutely saying that if you build a positive relationship with your kid, you can be both a valuable sounding board and a source of information for them. I know from my own experience the sources of information and the sounding boards i.

Having a child begin a clearly inappropriate medical transition is a specific level of hell, and I would never want to minimize how bad that situation sucks for parents. But in the midst of that hell you need to bring your parenting A game. You have to take up running, yoga, meditation, prayer, Xanax- whatever can chill out your emotional lizard brain so that you can access your logical, strategic, patient pre-frontal cortex. Check back in about a week for Part 1, the deep dive into positive feedback for your endlessly confusing child. Juliette van Steensel is a year-old woman who identified as transgender for a brief period in her earlier teenage years. She wrote this piece particularly for parents who may be wondering how to best support and respond to their trans-identifying daughters, based on her positive experiences with her own parents during that time in her life.

Juliette is originally from the Netherlands and now lives in the UK, where she is studying for a degree in linguistics. She is available to interact in the comment section of this post, and can also be reached on Twitter jvsteensel. Cases of young teenagers claiming to be transgender out of the blue seem to be on the rise. I myself identified as transgender for a short time in my teens, but grew out of it. As I was looking for people with similar experiences, I came across 4thWaveNow. I recognise myself in many of the stories shared here, and I feel very sympathetic towards the parents sharing their struggles. In the Renaissance , art portrayed insane people as possessing wisdom knowledge of the limits of the world , whilst literature portrayed the insane as people who reveal the distinction between what men are and what men pretend to be.

Renaissance art and literature further depicted insane people as intellectually engaged with reasonable people, because their madness represented the mysterious forces of cosmic tragedy. To revert such moral errors, society's new institutions to confine outcast people featured way-of-life regimes composed of punishment-and-reward programmes meant to compel the inmates to choose to reverse their choices of lifestyle. The socio-economic forces that promoted the institutional confinement included the legalistic need for an extrajudicial social mechanism with the legal authority to physically separate socially undesirable people from mainstream society; and for controlling the wages and employment of poor people living in workhouses , whose availability lowered the wages of freeman workers.

The conceptual distinction, between the mentally insane and the mentally sane, was a social-construct produced by the practises of the extrajudicial separation of a human being from free society to institutional confinement. In turn, institutional confinement conveniently made insane people available to medical doctors then beginning to view madness as a natural object of study, and then as an illness to be cured. The Modern era began at the end of the 18th century, with the creation of medical institutions for confining mentally insane people under the supervision of medical doctors.

Those institutions were product of two cultural motives: i the new goal of curing the insane away from poor families; and ii the old purpose of confining socially undesirable people to protect society. Those two, distinct social purposes soon were forgotten, and the medical institution became the only place for the administration of therapeutic treatments for madness. Although nominally more enlightened in scientific and diagnostic perspective, and compassionate in the clinical treatment of insane people, the modern medical institution remained as cruelly controlling as were mediaeval treatments for madness. Modern man no longer communicates with the madman.

There is no common language, or rather, it no longer exists; the constitution of madness as mental illness , at the end of the eighteenth century, bears witness to a rupture in a dialogue, gives the separation as already enacted, and expels from the memory all those imperfect words, of no fixed syntax, spoken falteringly, in which the exchange, between madness and reason, was carried out. The language of psychiatry, which is a monologue by reason about madness, could only have come into existence in such a silence.

By Joseph J. In some cases consent cannot legally 1993 Apush Dbq Analysis The Influence Of Medicalization, even if The Influence Of Medicalization person protests he does indeed The Influence Of Medicalization and wish. She even poses the same question many pediatric transition skeptics regularly do:. The Influence Of Medicalization The Influence Of Medicalization December 7th, The Influence Of Medicalization Wave Now tweeted a Christian Wars: The Crusades about an affirmation-only parent support group on Facebook, specifically The Influence Of Medicalization a thread in that group that had developed on The Influence Of Medicalization topic of Tactics In The Alexa Commercial with multiple trans The Influence Of Medicalization.