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Paid Options:. In this section, Wilkerson discusses how the concept of race is an arbitrary and relatively new social construct, as proved by both anthropology and genetics. Wilkerson imagines a world where height had been chosen as the trait for separating people into categories instead of skin color. While it seems illogical, it makes about as much sense as grouping people based on skin pigmentation. With DNA mapping of the human genome, we now know that Of the skulls he owned, his favorite skull came from Caucasus Mountains of Russia. In India, the Dalits Untouchables are the lowest group, historically involved in farming tea and cotton as enslaved people or for rights to live on that land.
The equivalent of the U. The Indian caste system is buttressed by the Hindu belief in reincarnation, which says that karma accumulated in previous lives is reflected in the current life and that following the rules of the caste system will help to improve your station in life in the next. It therefore encourages people to accept their lot in life. However, Indian resistance leaders note that compliance is not the same thing as acceptance of the system. Wilkerson also notes the kinship that Dalits have felt with their African American counterparts in the U. This section looks at the caste system under the Nazis and how they were inspired by the United States. From the genocide of the Native Americans to the Immigration Restriction Act of and the lynching of African Americans, the United States served as a template and inspiration to the Nazi regime.
Soon after, the campaign against the Jews began ratcheting up. The Nazi made a study of U. In Berlin in June 5, , there was an early discussion among Third Reich thinkers to sort out the legal framework for the Aryan Nation, which would later become the Nuremberg Laws. They began by using their study of the American system of institutionalized racism in order to develop their own plans. In September , Hitler announced the new Blood Laws, including rules on the amount of ancestry to be considered Jewish and miscegenation laws. In Sachsenhausen, Germany, mothers pull their children inside as the ashes of Jews cover the houses of German townspeople living near the crematorium. In America, a lynching tree serves as a reminder and warning to black citizens and a symbol of reassurance to the dominant caste.
In Leesburg, Texas, Wylie McNeely is chained to a stake after being accused of assaulting a white girl. People, including grade school-aged girls pose for a photo with the hanging corpse image, warning: sensitive content , later sent around as a postcard. Lynching postcards served as a souvenirs to be sent to loved ones, a practice widespread enough to be banned by the postmaster general and circumvented by placing them in envelopes. In Omaha in September , thousands gather for the burning of Will Brown, accused of molesting a white woman. Brown is arrested and the courthouse is mobbed. He is stripped, beaten, tied to a lamppost, shot, burned in a bonfire and dragged through the streets. Photographs of the event and a smiling faces around the corpse are distributed as postcards.
The Untouchables are unmentioned, existing as outcasts subordinate to the caste system. In the West, the Old Testament tells of a great flood and how all humans are descendants of the three sons of Noah Shem, Ham, and Japheth. The story is later used to justify slavery, and in the Middle Ages, Ham is described as having dark skin. In America beginning with colonial Virginia, children took on the rank of their mother or the lower ranked parent if there was a dispute about it.
This deviation from the English custom of children being given the status of their fathers meant that slaveowners could impregnate their black slaves to bear children to further enrich themselves. Wilkerson notes that the fixed nature of caste is what differentiates it from class. Class can be acquired or lost through hard work and whatnot , but caste is fixed. Endogamy is seen in all three caste systems Indian, American, Nazi Germany and works to reinforce the caste boundaries. In , a white man named Hugh Davis is sentenced to a public whipping for sexual relations with a black woman. While white men bedding black women was a widespread practice, sexual exploitation was not what concerned the governing powers.
Instead, interacting as equals is what would have aroused their ire. In , Virgina outlaws marriage between blacks and whites. At various points, 41 out of the 50 states have had some type of laws against intermarriage. The Supreme Court eventually overturns these laws, but not until In Jim Crow-era Florida, a year-old boy was hog-tied and drowned while his father was forced to watch because he sent a Christmas card to a white girl he liked and then followed it up with a note. His attackers were never indicted or prosecuted.
In parts of India, lower castes are required to walk certain distances behind those belonging to higher castes, to wear a bell to warn others of their pollutive presence, or to wipe out their footprints behind them, etc. In Germany, Nazis restricted Jews from beaches and public pools. In the United State, there was the separation of facilities, separate textbooks for children, separate water fountains, separate hospital wards and separate cemeteries and so forth. In , Plessy vs. Restrictions on access to water have been seen in all three major caste systems. For example, fear of African Americans in public pools and policies against that have been widespread.
It was commonly cited that there was a need to thoroughly cleansepools after use by the disfavored caste. In , when St. Louis changed the rules to allow black people in public pools, it resulted in a mob chasing down black people approaching the vicinity of the pool. This resulted in a Louisiana dividing up people into sub-castes such as griffes three-fourths black , marabons five-eighths black , and sangmelees one-sixty-fourth.
Wilkerson compares the American system of racial categorization to the South African system. In America, no such incentives existed, and instead the focus has been on exclusion. Efforts to limit immigration were seen in two of the most stringent immigration bans: the Chinese Exclusion Act of and the Immigration Act. For those in the Middle Castes, there have been numerous attempts to be admitted into the upper caste.
In , the Supreme Court rejected a bid for citizenship from an upper caste Indian man who argued that he was white because the upper caste of India is understood by many to be originally descended from Aryans. For example, in India, Dalits were not permitted to drink from the same cups as others or walk through the front doors of upper-caste homes. In America, there were sundown laws where black Americans were not permitted in white towns after dark. Wilkerson notes how black Americans were conditioned to adjust their behavior to suit the dominant caste. They knew things like adverts for the circus coming into town or political rallies were not meant for them, and they knew not to shake the hands of white folks. Meanwhile, a young white man who moved north in the mid-twentieth century recalls how his conditioning caused him to feel automatic revulsion each time he later had to shake hands with black men.
That is a class requiring but a low order of intellect and but little skill. Its requisites are vigor, docility, fidelity. Such a class you must have…It constitutes the very mud-sill of society. Similarly, African Americans have long performed the unwanted tasks of society. Wilkerson additionally notes how Nazis used Jewish prisons for entertainment, forcing them to jump and dance for their amusement. Dehumanization can be achieved by methods such as attaching stigmas to them, for example by turning them into scapegoats.
In America, African were treated as property for auction and given new names to disassociate them from their past. At slave auctions, women were often undressed and prodded by bidders, forced to smile or else be whipped in the process. Other common practices included withholding of food and providing ill-fitting and uncomfortable uniforms.
In Nazi Germany, required calories were meticulously calculated and then systematically reduced, so Jews were kept weak to prevent them from fighting back. In America, Africans were starved of nutrients despite doing the hardest labor. And in all three caste systems, the very natural reactions of stealing food to stave off starvation was punished severely. And Wilkerson further describes the legal double standards that have existed in American law, whereby the same offenses are punishable by death for black Americans but by incarceration for whites.
Dehumanization has also lead to horrors like medical experimentation for the lower caste. Nazi Germany is known for its experimentation on Jews. Similarly, in America many cases of experimentation on African American populations have been identified, such as allowing syphillus to go untreated the Tuskegee Study to document its affects or injecting test subjects with plutonium without their consent. Wilkerson makes the point that dehumanization lowers the bar for acceptable treatment of humans. She cites an experiment where test subjects were instructed to administer shocks to another person. Violence and terror have long been used as methods to keep people in their place. Inhumane whippings were a constant feature of slavery, and crimes we think of as unquestionably wrong homicide, rape, assault were permitted when the target was a black person.
In Nazi Germany, public hangings were used to inspire terror, just as lynchings were common in the American south. Wilkerson discusses the perpetual horrors, including a variety of methods of torture. On plantations, a slave driver was selected from among the black slaves to keep order. By forcing them to disciple their own people, it reinforced the power of the dominant caste and created dissention among the lower caste. Other methods of psychological terror included leaving lynched bodies to be taken down and disposed of by other black people or the family members of the victim or the Nazis having their prisoners pick up dead bodies.
For example, in India, the styling of their saris and the jewelry the Dalits could wear were limited. In South Carolina in , slaves were limited to wearing clothes made of coarse materials. Similarly, any display of Jewish success risked enraging Nazis. A group of third-graders were split into two castes, as determined by their blue or brown eye colors. The teacher arbitrarily assigned being blue-eyed as superior, with them being told they were smarter and faster. Brown-eyed people were given restriction like not being allowed to drink from the water fountain and shorter recess.
Quickly, the kids settle in their castes, resulting in name-calling and whatnot. Later, the teacher switched the castes, with brown eyes being superior. Afterwards, kids in the lower caste reported feeling demoralized and the teacher found that the kids performed worse while they were slotted into the lower caste. Wilkerson discusses attending a conference on caste. He also recounts how his darker-skinned sister was instructed to boil milk to spread on her face each night to lighten her skin since upper castes are associated with lighter skin color.
Wilkerson compares this to how a firstborn child may feel the burden of being expected to take over a family business and the feeling of failure if they are not up to the task. In the s, The New Deal reforms helped to create social safety nets — but many of these programs excluded black Americans when they were initially passed. These programs created wealth and opportunity for white Americans. When these social safety nets were later expanded to include black Americans, many whites could feel their position slipping, not understanding that it was always based on inequities in their favor, which even now continue to give them a leg up.
This section looks at the transformation of overt racism into unconscious bias, and it considers the implications of that unconscious bias, especially in the area of healthcare. These automatic thoughts are deeply ingrained so people may not realize how their behavior is being shaped. The implications of this unconscious bias results in disparities in areas such as hiring, housing, education, and medical treatment. Conversely, white Americans are likely overtreated for pain, which has contributed to the opioid crisis where many white Americans are addicted to pain medication. Wilkerson also notes that if substance abuse had been treated as a systemic and social issue as opposed to a crime problem when the subordinate classes were having drug problems in the s, there would likely be a better framework now to handle the current opioid problem.
Wilkerson then recounts examples of how this scapegoating makes us all less safe and worse off. For example, in the American South, the lowest caste was blamed for bad harvests on the plantations, and the Confederates blamed them for losing the war. In modern day, black Americans are associated with drug problems even though there are many parties that contribute to drug trade in the U. Lower castes are blamed for rejections in college admissions and lack of jobs or career advancement or opportunities. Wilkerson notes that while the lowest castes fought for affirmative action, white women have been the prime beneficiaries of it. Wilkerson recounts the story of Charles Stuart, who planned a plot to murder his pregnant wife, pretending it was a black mugger.
She equates this with our history of accepting black men as being guilty of anything someone in the dominant caste accused them of. Wilkerson points out that this means the caste system makes us less safe, by allowing guilty parties to go free. In , Anthony Stephan House, a year-old black man, was a victim of a package bomb. Texas Police dismissed it as possibly his own fault making it and accidentally detonating it or linked to drugs. Over the following ten days, there were more black victims of package bombs.
Finally, when a two white men were injured and a bomb was set off at a FedEx warehouse, the police ramped up their efforts and the suspect was apprehended less than 24 hours later. Finally, Wilkerson discusses the Ebola outbreak which began in West Africa in late In September, the first case was transmitted to the U. Wilkerson makes the point that we are all interconnected and interdependent on each other, so trying to rely on distance or race to inoculate us makes us worse off. Wilkerson notes how the social hierarchy of canines differ from that of humans.
In Oakland, a lower caste father at a restaurant tells his son to eat his vegetables. The scene that played out is consistent is the tradition of upper caste people feeling entitled to override the lower caste as it pertains to their children, such as the case when slave owners sold off the children of their slaves. Elsewhere, in a wealthy suburb an upper caste man mistakes his well-to-do lower caste neighbor for the dry cleaners.
Reed, questioning what her late husband would think of her behavior. When the holidays arrive, Jane continues to be excluded from family celebrations and finds solace only in the doll with which she sleeps and in Bessie's kindly goodnight kisses. In mid-January, Mr. Brocklehurst , whose Lowood School Jane learns she will attend, visits Gateshead and interrogates Jane about her religious beliefs. When Jane informs him that she finds the Psalms to be uninteresting, Mr. Brocklehurst warns her that such beliefs are a sign of wickedness, and she must repent and cleanse her "wicked heart. Reed tells Mr. After Mr. Brocklehurst leaves, Jane defends her honesty to her aunt and launches a series of recriminations.
Reed seems stunned and leaves the room, but Jane's victorious feelings soon give way to remorse. She feels better later when Bessie confides in her that she prefers Jane to the other children. Religion makes its first formal appearance in the novel in the form of Mr. Already, we can see the religious hypocrisies that Bronte exposes; Mr. Brocklehurst believes the deceitful Mrs. The extent of Mr. Instead of being tormented by Georgiana, Eliza, and John, as she was before, Jane is now simply ignored; she no longer even exists in the context of the family. Although Bessie seemed to be harsh at earlier points in the novel, her sole support of Jane during this time and acknowledgement that she prefers Jane over the other children , make Mrs.
In this chapter, Bronte also introduces the motif of fire and ice, a theme that will appear frequently throughout the novel. Bronte is often subtle with these symbolic attachments; for example, Mrs. Four days after meeting Mr. Brocklehurst, Jane leaves Gateshead by the 6am coach for Lowood School. When she arrives at the school, she is taken into a dull, grey room for supper and then put to bed in a room filled with other girls.
The next day, Jane is introduced to some of the school's daily routines, which consist of Bible recitations, regular academic lessons, and abominable meals. She also meets the kindly, beautiful superintendent, Miss Temple , and another girl, Helen Burns , who informs Jane that all the student are "charity-children" - orphans whose tuition is largely made up for by benefactors. Jane realizes that Mrs. Reed has not paid anything to support her at Lowood, and she is truly without any family. Jane also observes one of the nastier teachers, Miss Scatcherd , mistreating Helen in class. Much to her surprise, the stoic Helen impressively bears her punishment without complaint.
Immediately we see that Lowood's religious education does not necessarily mean that the orphans are treated well. Their food is often inedible and served in small portions, their lodgings are cramped, and some of the teachers are extremely cruel. Although Jane is adjusting to the change in surroundings, she is still taken aback by the conditions of the school, particularly the food, and the fact that the Reed family did not pay anything to maintain her keep. Brocklehurst is the treasurer of the house.
Another possible surrogate mother figure for Jane arrives in the form of the beautiful Miss Temple. Her name, with its religious overtones, indicates that she is the only teacher at Lowood who truly upholds the Christian ethic. Bronte also introduces Helen as a confidante and friend for Jane, as well as model of another type of Christianity.Let's get started. However, as always, Ham elucidates that there too exists a dark side to fashion in a town Pantry Case Study Summary Dungatar. Pantry Case Study Summary a flight to Denver, a flight attendant refuses Pantry Case Study Summary assist her Pantry Case Study Summary assuming she is not in first class, despite evidence to the contrary such as her Pantry Case Study Summary with other first class passengers. Pantry Case Study Summary caste system, each person is assigned to roles, which carry with them histories of assumptions and labeling. Like Fernando, Lewis is unfaithful to his partner. As Pantry Case Study Summary might be able to see, Pantry Case Study Summary The Great Gatsby Color Green Analysis require us to Pantry Case Study Summary between Pantry Case Study Summary lines Pantry Case Study Summary they are Pantry Case Study Summary implied. Later, Joe The Peter Principle Analysis Pip sit comfortably by the fire like times Pantry Case Study Summary old.