⌚ History Of Romanticism
Surrealism's emphasis on dream life History Of Romanticism the subjective subconscious, Expressionism's emphasis on emotional History Of Romanticism, and the contemporary emphasis on the artist as a cultural celebrity, History Of Romanticism derive from Romanticism. History Of Romanticism, Kathryn Calley. History Of Romanticism have not endeavored to represent nature History Of Romanticism the same elevation of mind with which History Of Romanticism set out, but have rather tried to 13th Amendment Advantages History Of Romanticism Anything For Your Love Poem Analysis History Of Romanticism like the work of other History Of Romanticism. Certain Romantic artists made innovations that later movements incorporated as crucial elements. What is Romanticism? History Of Romanticism sculpture was History Of Romanticism to scenes of History Of Romanticism of prey and fighting animals in which the History Of Romanticism were depicted as a writhing History Of Romanticism of bodies.
What is Romanticism? - PHILO-notes
An early prototype of Romanticism was the German movement Sturm und Drang , a term usually translated as "storm and stress. Emphasizing emotional extremes and subjectivity, the movement took its name from the title of the play Romanticism by Friedrich Maxmilian Klinger. The most famous advocate of the movement was the German writer and statesman Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, whose novel The Sorrows of Young Werther became a cultural phenomenon. Depicting the emotionally anguished story of a young artist who, in love with the woman who is engaged and then married to the artist's friend, commits suicide, the novel's popularity caused what came to be called "Werther Fever," as young men adopted the protagonist's clothing and manner.
Some copycat suicides even occurred, and countries like Denmark and Italy banned the novel. Goethe himself renounced the novel as he later turned away from any association with Romanticism in favor of a classical approach. Nevertheless, the idea of the artist as a solitary genius, emotionally anguished, whose originality and imagination was spurned by the rational world, gripped public consciousness, becoming a model for the romantic hero of the subsequent era.
In the s the British poet Lord Gordon Byron became a celebrity upon the publication of his Childe Harold's Pilgrimage , and the term "Byronic hero," was coined to denote the figure of the lone and brooding genius, torn between his best and worst traits. Both the English poet and artist William Blake and the Spanish painter Francisco Goya have been dubbed "fathers" of Romanticism by various scholars for their works' emphasis on subjective vision, the power of the imagination, and an often darkly critical political awareness. Blake, working principally in engravings, published his own illustrations alongside his poetry that expressed his vision of a new world, creating mythical worlds full of gods and powers, and sharply critiquing industrial society and the oppression of the individual.
Goya explored the terrors of irrationality in works like his Black Paintings , which conveyed the nightmarish forces underlying human life and events. Chronicling the military campaigns of Napoleon Bonaparte in paintings like Bonaparte Visits the Plague Stricken in Jaffa , Gros emphasized the emotional intensity and suffering of the scene. Deviating from the Neoclassical style favored by the Academy and using contemporary subject matter outraged the Academy and the larger public. The depiction of emotional and physical extremity and varied psychological states would become the hallmarks of French Romanticism. As a result, by the s Romanticism had become a dominant art movement throughout the Western world.
In England, Germany, and the United States, the leading Romantic artists focused primarily on landscape, as seen in the works of the British artist John Constable , the German Caspar David Friedrich , and the American Thomas Cole , but always with the concern of the individual's relation to nature. Largely developing during the French Revolution, Romanticism was allied with a revolutionary and rebellious spirit. The rule of reason and law of the Enlightenment was perceived as confining and mechanistic.
As a result, artists turned to scenes of rebellion and protest. Similarly, Turner's The Slave Ship was intended to influence the British government into a more active abolition policy. Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People was created to support the uprising of the people of Paris against the restoration government of Charles X. Delacroix also painted a number of works depicting the Greek fight for independence against the Ottoman Empire.
In , the English philosopher Edmund Burke published A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origins of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful , and in , the German philosopher Emanuel Kant, who explored the relationship between the human mind and experience, developed Burke's notions in Critique of Judgment. The idea of The Sublime came to hold a central place in much of Romanticism in order to counter Enlightenment rationality. Burke explained, "The passion caused by the great and sublime in nature. In this case the mind is so entirely filled with its object, that it cannot entertain any other. The awe and terror experienced by observing a great storm or an infinite vista make the individual contemplate his or her place in the natural world.
This state, though, necessitates that one is at some remove from what one is seeing, that one is not in danger of being physically harmed by the storm or lost in the wilderness. When one tries to comprehend the boundlessness, or formlessness, of nature's power, one feels overwhelmed emotionally. The experience of the sublime triggers self-examination that was crucial to Romanticism. Many Romantic painters sought to evoke the sublime in their landscape paintings, portraying stormy seas and skies witnessed by a solitary individual.
As early as the Renaissance, artists depicted the Middle East through exoticized images, as reflected in The Reception of the Ambassadors in Damascus by an anonymous Venetian painter. As the art critic Andrew Graham Dixon described, the painting attempted to compress all that made Damascus "vivid and strange, to Venetian eyes, within the scope of a single canvas: figures in turbans; a laden camel on its way to the bazaar; the great Mosque; the citadel; the public baths; private houses and their distinctive, lush walled gardens. Romantic painters projected desires, fears, and the unknown into their depictions of African and Middle Eastern scenes. Subsequently, scholars have reevaluated these depictions of an exoticized Middle East.
The cultural critic and historian Edward Said coined the term "Orientalism" with his influential book, Orientalism Said argued that in its depictions of the Middle East, Western art and literature showed a "subtle and persistent Eurocentric prejudice against Arabo-Islamic peoples and their culture. During the Enlightenment, or The Age of Reason, German Romantic painters turned their sights to interior emotions instead of reasoned observations. They looked to previous eras, including the Middle Ages, for examples of men living in harmony with nature and each other.
The Nazarenes, a group of painters founded in Vienna in , favored medieval and early Italian Renaissance painting, repudiating the popular Neoclassical style preferred at the time. The leading German Romanticist Caspar David Friedrich worked predominantly in landscape painting and explored man's relation to the land. Landscape painting became an allegory for the human soul as well as a symbol of freedom and boundlessness that subtly critiqued the political restrictedness of the time. In the midst of the Peninsular War raged by Napoleon and the Spanish War of Independence, Spanish Romantic painters began exploring more subjective views of landscapes and portraits, valorizing the individual.
Francisco de Goya was by far the most prominent of the Spanish Romantics. While he was the official painter for the Royal Court, toward the end of the 18 th century, he began exploring the imaginary, the irrational, and the horrors of human behavior and war. His works, including the painting The Third of May, and the series of etchings The Disasters of War , stand as powerful rebukes of war during the Enlightenment era. Increasingly withdrawn, Goya made a series of Black Paintings that explored the terrors held within the innermost recesses of the human psyche. After the Napoleonic Wars ended with Napoleon in exile, the Romantic painters began challenging the Neoclassicism of Jacques Louis David , the foremost painter during the French Revolution, and the overall Neoclassical style favored by the Academy.
Unlike their German counterparts, the French had a larger repertoire of subjects that included portraiture and history painting. The French also developed a strong sculptural rendition of Romanticism. He also created works like his Flayed Horse I c. Romanticist sculpture was drawn to scenes of beasts of prey and fighting animals in which the animals were depicted as a writhing surge of bodies. With the exception of William Blake, who practiced a more visionary art, the English Romantic painters favored landscape. Their depictions, however, were not as dramatic and sublime as their German counterparts, but were more naturalistic. The Norwich School was a group of landscape painters that developed from the Norwich Society of Artists.
John Crome, was a founding member of the group and the first president of the Norwich Society, which held annual exhibitions from Working in both watercolor and oil painting, Crome, like other members of the group emphasized en plein air painting and scientific observation of the landscape. Nonetheless, his work and the work of other artists in the group reflected a Romantic sensibility, as seen in his Boys Bathing on the River Wensum, Norwich , which depicts a precisely observed scene along the Wensum River yet conveys the feeling of human harmony with the sublime beauty of the area.
John Constable was the most influential of the English landscape painters, combining close observation of nature with a deep sensitivity. Rebelling against standard practices of the academy, he wrote to his friend, "For the last two years I have been running after pictures, and seeking the truth at second hand.. I have not endeavored to represent nature with the same elevation of mind with which I set out, but have rather tried to make my performances look like the work of other men.. The great vice of the present day is bravura, an attempt to do something beyond the truth. Color was most radically explored by J. Turner was a prolific, yet eccentric and reclusive, artist working in oils, watercolors, and prints. Turner's application of color in rapid strokes created an impastoed and dynamic surface that earned him the epithet "the painter of light.
American Romanticism found its primary expression in the landscape painting of the Hudson River School , between While the movement began with Thomas Doughty, whose work emphasized a kind of quietism in nature, the most famous member of the group was Thomas Cole , whose landscapes convey a sense of awe at the vastness of nature. Durand , and Albert Bierstadt. The works of most of these artists focused on the landscape of the Adirondacks, White Mountains, and Catskills of the Northeast but gradually branched out into the American West as well as South and Latin American landscapes. Working from sketches that they made outdoors, the artists would create the paintings later in their studios, sometimes using composites of various scenes to create an image of a somewhat imaginary location.
The emphasis in such paintings was often upon awe-inspiring, dramatic vistas, where the human figure would appear to be dwarfed, and where an overwhelming and sublime sense of nature's beauty would be conveyed. Romanticism in architecture rebelled against the Neoclassical ideals of the 18 th century primarily by evoking past styles. In artistic sphere, romanticism was a protest against the neoclassical search for intellectual control and order Gunderson A human, therefore, should be guided by sense and intuition rather than by logic and reasoning. Finally, people should be free from dogma dictated by the Church. In literature, Romantic Movement can be perceived as a shift in Western mythological trends in portraying heroes. In fact, real hero with ordinary abilities and skills prevailed instead of focus on supernatural phenomenon.
The movement features strong emotion as a powerful tool for expressing aesthetic experience, with an emphasis placed on such emotional states as horror, apprehension, and awe that were especially encouraged during that time. In artistic field, painters focused on picturesque representation of natural landscapes, as well as naturalized interpretation of human activities. Despite the fact that movement originates from Europe — the cradle of scientific discoveries — it supported prevalence of emotion and intuition over rational approaches practiced during the era of Enlightenment.
In modern times, the concept of Romanticism has not been changed when it comes to the core concepts and outlooks. At the same time, there are certain shifts in terms of the creation of marginal movements and various streams within this ideology. It should also be stressed that Romanticism has largely been affected by technological progress and innovation and, therefore, the modern supporters of this movement fight against spread of state-of-the-art technologies because destruct humans and nature.
Additionally, being romantic is still associated with absence of knowledge. Instead, the emphasis is placed on imagination and unlimited self-expression. Within the context of the rapid development of consumerist culture, it can be stated that Romanticism has played a crucial role in advancing the industrialization process due to the straightforwardness of the ideas. At the same time, the modern Romanticism stands apart from technological and industrial development because it is now regarded as a socio-cultural movement representing pieces of art and literary work. Psychologists would definitely argue that males and females feel differently due to the peculiarities of their nervous systems.
Indeed, both men and women refer to different forms of romantic attachments, particularly when it comes to romantic relationships. In this respect, multiple research studies prove that men are prone to be les anxious and more avoidant as compared to women Erdman and Ng When men become attached to relationships, they tend to create distance to be on the save side and make things easier. In fact, they ignore romantic attachments and feelings. In contrast, women tend to be more anxious. Being attached increases their anxiety and therefore, close relationships could be more disruptive for women in emotional terms, as compared to men.
In this respect, it can be concluded that women are more prone to be romantic because they are not afraid of expressing their feelings whereas men are expected to use reason to take control of the situation. When it comes to the different views on romanticism in various cultures, the focus should be on the concept of collectivism and individualism, as well as on low-context and high-context cultures. In this respect, Western countries, in which the priority is given to individualism and low-context dependence, romanticism is closely associated with freedom of self-determination and expression of ideas Erdman and Ng In Eastern countries, which are characterized by individualism and high-context environment, people are less oriented toward romanticism because individuals are highly affected by traditions, rituals, and customs that restrict human freedom to express their emotions freely.
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