✪✪✪ Clothing In The Elizabethan Era

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Clothing In The Elizabethan Era



The Elizabethan era was the Queen This Apple Could Have Been Saved Clothing In The Elizabethan Era reign which was from — On balance, it can be said that Elizabeth provided the country with a long period of general if not total peace and generally increased prosperity due in large part Clothing In The Elizabethan Era stealing from Clothing In The Elizabethan Era treasure ships, raiding settlements with low defenses, and Clothing In The Elizabethan Era African slaves. The two designers who impacted the fashion industry the most during this period were Coco Chanel and Jeanne Lanvin. Despite the struggles of the lower class, the government tended to Essay About Creation Myths money Clothing In The Elizabethan Era wars and exploration voyages instead of Saving Private Ryan Essay welfare. It became Clothing In The Elizabethan Era fashion Clothing In The Elizabethan Era the late 19th century to collect and sing the old songs. The wife of Clothing In The Elizabethan Era craftsman might assist in Clothing In The Elizabethan Era shop, Clothing In The Elizabethan Era running Clothing In The Elizabethan Era a business, Clothing In The Elizabethan Era take over the Clothing In The Elizabethan Era if widowed. Jyotsana Rao.

Fashions of Elizabethan Era

Wealthy women to gain such a complexion used several different things; the commonest way was to use Ceruse, a foundation made from mixing the poisonous white lead and vinegar. Many people preferred to apply tin ash, sulphur, alum, etc. White eggs were used to hide wrinkles. What about eyes and their eyebrows? A sign of aristocracy during that time was to have arched and thin eyebrows that created a high forehead.

To make their eyes sparkly and larger, a chemical named Belladonna was also used. Eyebrows were plucked to achieve their desired look. Hair Queen Elizabeth had reddish hair. Thus people started to dye their hair in to a reddish shade. Fair hair during that time was considered fashionable. People used different bleaching agents to make their hair fair like- Saffron, celadine,cumin seeds and even urine! Wigs were also used to get that fair hair look. Their hard was curled tightly from the front. The styles of the gowns women would wear changed year to year but the basic silhouette stayed the same. Women wore gowns comprised of tight-fitting corsets and a fuller skirt that would fall to their ankles.

Dresses that cut to show a lot of the neckline were acceptable and fashionable. Clothing of the Upper Class was heavy, bulky, and restricted the movement to whom as wearing it. Essays Essays FlashCards. Browse Essays. Sign in. Essay Sample Check Writing Quality. Show More. Read More. People who could not afford glass often used polished horn, cloth or paper. Tudor chimneys were tall, thin, and often decorated with symmetrical patterns of molded or cut brick. Early Tudor houses, and the homes of poorer people, did not have chimneys. The smoke in these cases would be let out through a simple hole in the roof. Mansions had many chimneys for the many fireplaces required to keep the vast rooms warm. These fires were also the only way of cooking food.

Wealthy Tudor homes needed many rooms, where a large number of guests and servants could be accommodated, fed and entertained. Wealth was demonstrated by the extensive use of glass. Windows became the main feature of Tudor mansions, and were often a fashion statement. Mansions were often designed to a symmetrical plan; "E" and "H" shapes were popular. The population of London increased from , to , between the death of Mary Tudor in and the death of Elizabeth I in Inflation was rapid and the wealth gap was wide.

Poor men, women, and children begged in the cities, as the children only earned sixpence a week. With the growth of industry, many landlords decided to use their land for manufacturing purposes, displacing the farmers who lived and worked there. Despite the struggles of the lower class, the government tended to spend money on wars and exploration voyages instead of on welfare. About one-third of the population lived in poverty, with the wealthy expected to give alms to assist the impotent poor. Those who left their parishes in order to locate work were termed vagabonds and could be subjected to punishments, including whipping and putting at the stocks. The idea of the workhouse for the able-bodied poor was first suggested in There was an unprecedented expansion of education in the Tudor period.

Until then, few children went to school. Boys were allowed to go to school and began at the age of 4, they then moved to grammar school when they were 7 years old. Girls were either kept at home by their parents to help with housework or sent out to work to bring money in for the family. They were not sent to school. Boys were educated for work and the girls for marriage and running a household so when they married they could look after the house and children. Many Tudor towns and villages had a parish school where the local vicar taught boys to read and write. Brothers could teach their sisters these skills. At school, pupils were taught English, Latin, Greek, catechism and arithmetic. The pupils practised writing in ink by copying the alphabet and the Lord's Prayer.

There were few books, so pupils read from hornbooks instead. These wooden boards had the alphabet, prayers or other writings pinned to them and were covered with a thin layer of transparent cow's horn. There were two types of school in Tudor times: petty school was where young boys were taught to read and write; grammar school was where abler boys were taught English and Latin. The school day started at am in winter and am in summer and finished about pm.

Petty schools had shorter hours, mostly to allow poorer boys the opportunity to work as well. Schools were harsh and teachers were very strict, often beating pupils who misbehaved. Education would begin at home, where children were taught the basic etiquette of proper manners and respecting others. Only the most wealthy people allowed their daughters to be taught, and only at home.

During this time, endowed schooling became available. This meant that even boys of very poor families were able to attend school if they were not needed to work at home, but only in a few localities were funds available to provide support as well as the necessary education scholarship. Boys from wealthy families were taught at home by a private tutor. He refounded many former monastic schools—they are known as "King's schools" and are found all over England.

During the reign of Edward VI many free grammar schools were set up to take in non-fee paying students. There were two universities in Tudor England: Oxford and Cambridge. Some boys went to university at the age of about England's food supply was plentiful throughout most of the reign; there were no famines. Bad harvests caused distress, but they were usually localized. The most widespread came in —57 and — Trade and industry flourished in the 16th century, making England more prosperous and improving the standard of living of the upper and middle classes.

However, the lower classes did not benefit much and did not always have enough food. As the English population was fed by its own agricultural produce, a series of bad harvests in the s caused widespread starvation and poverty. The success of the wool trading industry decreased attention on agriculture, resulting in further starvation of the lower classes. Cumbria, the poorest and most isolated part of England, suffered a six-year famine beginning in Diseases and natural disasters also contributed to the scarce food supply.

In the 17th century the food supply improved. England had no food crises from to , a period when France was unusually vulnerable to famines. Historians point out that oat and barley prices in England did not always increase following a failure of the wheat crop, but did do so in France. England was exposed to new foods such as the potato imported from South America , and developed new tastes during the era. The more prosperous enjoyed a wide variety of food and drink, including exotic new drinks such as tea, coffee, and chocolate. French and Italian chefs appeared in the country houses and palaces bringing new standards of food preparation and taste.

For example, the English developed a taste for acidic foods—such as oranges for the upper class—and started to use vinegar heavily. The gentry paid increasing attention to their gardens, with new fruits, vegetables and herbs; pasta, pastries, and dried mustard balls first appeared on the table. The apricot was a special treat at fancy banquets. Roast beef remained a staple for those who could afford it. The rest ate a great deal of bread and fish. Every class had a taste for beer and rum. The diet in England during the Elizabethan era depended largely on social class. Bread was a staple of the Elizabethan diet, and people of different statuses ate bread of different qualities.

The upper classes ate fine white bread called manchet , while the poor ate coarse bread made of barley or rye. The poorer among the population consumed a diet largely of bread, cheese, milk, and beer, with small portions of meat, fish and vegetables, and occasionally some fruit. Potatoes were just arriving at the end of the period, and became increasingly important. The typical poor farmer sold his best products on the market, keeping the cheap food for the family. Stale bread could be used to make bread puddings, and bread crumbs served to thicken soups, stews, and sauces. At a somewhat higher social level families ate an enormous variety of meats, who could choose among venison , beef , mutton , veal , pork , lamb, fowl, salmon , eel , and shellfish.

The holiday goose was a special treat. Rich spices were used by the wealthier people to offset the smells of old salt-preserved meat. Many rural folk and some townspeople tended a small garden which produced vegetables such as asparagus, cucumbers, spinach, lettuce, beans, cabbage, turnips, radishes, carrots, leeks, and peas, as well as medicinal and flavoring herbs. Some grew their own apricots, grapes, berries, apples, pears, plums, strawberries, currants, and cherries. Families without a garden could trade with their neighbors to obtain vegetables and fruits at low cost. Fruits and vegetables were used in desserts such as pastries, tarts, cakes, crystallized fruit, and syrup. At the rich end of the scale the manor houses and palaces were awash with large, elaborately prepared meals, usually for many people and often accompanied by entertainment.

The upper classes often celebrated religious festivals, weddings, alliances and the whims of the king or queen. Feasts were commonly used to commemorate the "procession" of the crowned heads of state in the summer months, when the king or queen would travel through a circuit of other nobles' lands both to avoid the plague season of London, and alleviate the royal coffers, often drained through the winter to provide for the needs of the royal family and court. This would include a few days or even a week of feasting in each noble's home, who depending on his or her production and display of fashion, generosity and entertainment, could have his way made in court and elevate his or her status for months or even years.

Among the rich private hospitality was an important item in the budget. Entertaining a royal party for a few weeks could be ruinous to a nobleman. Inns existed for travellers, but restaurants were not known. Special courses after a feast or dinner which often involved a special room or outdoor gazebo sometimes known as a folly with a central table set with dainties of "medicinal" value to help with digestion. These would include wafers, comfits of sugar-spun anise or other spices, jellies and marmalades a firmer variety than we are used to, these would be more similar to our gelatin jigglers , candied fruits, spiced nuts and other such niceties. These would be eaten while standing and drinking warm, spiced wines known as hypocras or other drinks known to aid in digestion.

Sugar in the Middle Ages or Early Modern Period was often considered medicinal, and used heavily in such things. This was not a course of pleasure, though it could be as everything was a treat, but one of healthful eating and abetting the digestive capabilities of the body. It also, of course, allowed those standing to show off their gorgeous new clothes and the holders of the dinner and banquet to show off the wealth of their estate, what with having a special room just for banqueting. While the Tudor era presents an abundance of material on the women of the nobility—especially royal wives and queens—historians have recovered scant documentation about the average lives of women. There has, however, been extensive statistical analysis of demographic and population data which includes women, especially in their childbearing roles.

England had more well-educated upper-class women than was common anywhere in Europe. The Queen's marital status was a major political and diplomatic topic. It also entered into the popular culture. Elizabeth's unmarried status inspired a cult of virginity. In poetry and portraiture, she was depicted as a virgin or a goddess or both, not as a normal woman. In contrast to her father's emphasis on masculinity and physical prowess, Elizabeth emphasized the maternalism theme, saying often that she was married to her kingdom and subjects.

She explained "I keep the good will of all my husbands — my good people — for if they did not rest assured of some special love towards them, they would not readily yield me such good obedience," [69] and promised in they would never have a more natural mother than she. Over ninety percent of English women and adults, in general entered marriage at the end of the s and beginning of the s, at an average age of about 25—26 years for the bride and 27—28 years for the groom, with the most common ages being for grooms and 23 for brides. With William Shakespeare at his peak, as well as Christopher Marlowe and many other playwrights, actors and theatres constantly busy, the high culture of the Elizabethan Renaissance was best expressed in its theatre. Historical topics were especially popular, not to mention the usual comedies and tragedies.

Elizabethan literature is considered one of the "most splendid" in the history of English literature. In addition to drama and the theatre, it saw a flowering of poetry, with new forms like the sonnet , the Spenserian stanza , and dramatic blank verse , as well as prose, including historical chronicles, pamphlets , and the first English novels. Travelling musicians were in great demand at Court, in churches, at country houses, and at local festivals.

The composers were commissioned by church and Court, and deployed two main styles, madrigal and ayre. It became the fashion in the late 19th century to collect and sing the old songs. Yet within this general trend, a native school of painting was developing. In Elizabeth's reign, Nicholas Hilliard , the Queen's "limner and goldsmith," is the most widely recognized figure in this native development; but George Gower has begun to attract greater notice and appreciation as knowledge of him and his art and career has improved.

Watching plays became very popular during the Tudor period. Most towns sponsored plays enacted in town squares followed by the actors using the courtyards of taverns or inns referred to as inn-yards followed by the first theatres great open-air amphitheatres and then the introduction of indoor theatres called playhouses. This popularity was helped by the rise of great playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe using London theatres such as the Globe Theatre. By , 15, people a week were watching plays in London. It was during Elizabeth's reign that the first real theatres were built in England.

Before theatres were built, actors travelled from town to town and performed in the streets or outside inns. Miracle plays were local re-enactments of stories from the Bible. They derived from the old custom of mystery plays , in which stories and fables were enacted to teach lessons or educate about life in general.

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