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Advantages Of Being On The Mediterranean



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Axis air reconnaissance had spotted Allied. Troops and supplies unloading near Gela on D-day. Based upon the reported airborne drops, Guzzoni correctly surmised that the Allies intended to come ashore in the southeast, and he issued orders to that effect at on 10 July, nearly an hour before the first assault wave hit the beach. Nevertheless, the dispirited and ill-equipped Italian coastal units hardly put up a fight. Opposition in the Eighth Army's sector was negligible. By the end of the first day the British were firmly ashore and well on their way toward Augusta, having walked into Syracuse virtually unopposed. Resistance was not much stronger in the American zone, and the Seventh Army had little trouble moving ashore despite sporadic air and artillery attacks.

The only serious fighting occurred in the American center, where Axis mobile forces tried to throw the Americans back into the sea before they had a chance to become firmly established. Fortunately for the Americans, the attacks were poorly coordinated. Nine or ten of the latter managed to penetrate the town before the Rangers drove them off in a confused melee. Meanwhile, at the vital Piano Lupo crossroads, those few paratroopers who had been fortunate enough to land near their objective repulsed a column of about twenty Italian tanks with the help of naval gunfire and the advancing infantrymen of the 16th Regimental Combat Team.

Shortly thereafter they rebuffed a more serious attack made by ninety German Mark III and IV medium tanks, two armored artillery battalions, an armored reconnaissance battalion, and an engineer battalion from the Hermann Goering Division. Naval gunfire played a crucial role in stopping this German thrust. The worst event of the day occurred when seventeen German Tiger I heavy tanks, an armored artillery battalion, and two battalions of motorized infantry from the Hermann Goering Division overran the 1st Battalion, th Infantry 45th Division , after a stiff fight, capturing its commander and many of its men.

While Rangers, paratroopers, and infantrymen repelled Axis counterattacks, an even more serious struggle was being waged against mother nature. Although 10 July dawned bright and sunny, the rough seas of the previous night had disorganized several units. The worst case was that of the 45th Division's th Regiment, which had been scattered over a ten-mile front. Nor did the beaches prove to be as favorable as anticipated. Soft sand, shifting sandbars, and difficult exits created congestion on the beaches that was further aggravated by enemy air and artillery barrages. By midmorning, between and landing craft were stranded on the shoreline. Nevertheless, American service troops performed herculean feats to keep the men in the front lines supplied and supported.

During the first three days the U. Army and Navy moved 66, personnel, 17, deadweight tons of cargo, and 7, vehicles over Sicily's southern shores. Even more remarkable was the innovative DUKW amphibious truck that could move directly from offshore supply ships to inland depots. By the end of the first day, the Seventh Army had established a beachhead two to four miles deep and fifty miles wide. In the process it had captured over 4, prisoners at the cost of 58 killed, But the situation was still perilous. Axis counterattacks had created a dangerous bulge in the center of the American line, the very point where the bulk of the th Parachute Regiment should have been if its drop had been accurate.

July 11, the second day of the invasion, was the Seventh Army's most perilous day in Sicily. Early that morning, General Guzzoni renewed his attack against the shallow center of the American line—Piano Lupo, Gela, and the beaches beyond. Guzzoni committed the better part of two divisions in the attack, the Hermann Goering Division and the Italian Livorno Division. He backed them up with heavy air attacks by Italian and German planes based in Italy.

Congestion on the beaches hampered Bradley's efforts to send tanks forward, so that the defending infantrymen had nothing but artillery and naval gunfire to support them. Cooks, clerks, and Navy shore personnel were pressed into service to help the 1st and 45th Division infantrymen, Rangers, and paratroopers repel the Axis attacks. The fighting was fierce. A few German tanks broke into Gela, while two panzer battalions closed to within two thousand yards of the vulnerable beaches before being repulsed by ground and naval gunfire. Several miles southeast of Gela, Colonel Gavin and an impromptu assembly of paratroopers and 45th Division soldiers effectively thwarted another German column consisting of infantry, a battalion of self-propelled artillery, and a company of Tiger tanks at Biazzo Ridge.

By day's end, the Seventh Army had suffered over 2, casualties, the Army's greatest oneday loss during the campaign. But as darkness descended, the Americans still held, and in some areas had actually expanded, their narrow foothold on the island. After a day of heavy fighting, Patton decided to reinforce his battle-weary center with over 2, additional paratroopers from his reserves in North Africa. He ordered that the 1st and 2d Battalions, th Paratroop Regiment, the th Parachute Field Artillery Battalion, and a company from the th Airborne Engineer Battalion be dropped near Gela on the night of 11 July.

German aircraft had been active over the American sector all day, and consequently senior Army and Navy officers went to great lengths to inform everyone of the impending nighttime paratroop drop lest overanxious gunners fire on the friendly aircraft. Nevertheless, when the transport planes arrived over the beaches in the wake of a German air raid, nervous antiaircraft gunners ashore and afloat opened fire with devastating effect.

Allied antiaircraft guns shot down 23 and dam. The paratroop force suffered approximately 10 percent casualties and was badly disorganized. Later investigation would reveal that not everyone had been informed of the drop despite the Seventh Army's best efforts. Over the next two days the Seventh Army gradually pushed its way out of the coastal plain and into the hills ringing the American beachhead. Fighting between the 1st Division and the Hermann Goering Division was occasionally stiff, but General Allen moved his men relentlessly forward through Niscemi and on toward the Yellow Line. On the right, Middleton's 45th Division likewise made good progress toward Highway , while to the left Truscott's 3d Division infantrymen, supported by 2d Armored Division tanks, moved beyond their initial Yellow Line objectives.

The British matched American progress, and by the 13th they had advanced as far as Vizzini in the west and Augusta in the east. Resistance in the British zone was stiffening, however, due to difficult terrain and the arrival from France of elements of Germany's elite 1st Parachute Division. As the Eighth Army's drive toward Catania and Gerbini bogged down in heavy fighting, Montgomery persuaded Alexander to shift the boundary line between the American Seventh and British Eighth Armies west, thereby permitting him to advance on a broader front into central Sicily and sidestep the main centers of Axis resistance.

The boundary change, which Alexander communicated to Patton just before midnight on 13 July, stripped Highway away from Seventh Army and assigned it instead to the Eighth Army. Under the new instructions, a portion of the Eighth Army would advance up Highway to Enna, the key road junction in central Sicily, before turning northeast toward Messina. In essence, Alexander was interposing British forces between the Americans and the Germans, allowing the Eighth Army to monopolize the primary approaches to Messina and giving it complete responsibility for the Allied main effort. With its original line of advance blocked, Seventh Army was thus relegated to protecting the Eighth Army's flank and rear from possible attack by Axis forces in western Sicily—a distinctly secondary mission.

The change in front was one of the most important and controversial operational decisions of the campaign. It clearly reflected the British belief that the veteran Eighth Army was better qualified to carry the main burden of the campaign than its junior partner from across the Atlantic. Indeed, the decision did little more than make explicit the priorities and assumptions that had. On the other hand, by ordering the Seventh Army to stop short of Highway and redirecting its advance, Alexander lost momentum and provided the Axis valuable time to withdraw to a new defensive line between Catania and Enna.

The loss of momentum was best illustrated by the repositioning of the 45th Division, which had to return almost to the shoreline before it could sidestep around the 1st Division and take up its new position for a northwestward advance. Given the circumstances, Alexander might have been better served by reinforcing success and shifting the main emphasis of the campaign to the Seventh Army. This was not his choice, however, and his decision stirred up a storm of controversy in the American camp.

Patton and his generals were furious. They had always assumed that the Seventh Army would be permitted to push beyond its initial Yellow and Blue objectives and into central and northern Sicily in order to accompany the Eighth Army on its drive toward Messina. After all, Alexander's vague preinvasion plans had never expressly ruled this out. Now that option had been eliminated and they felt slighted. Not content to accept a secondary role, Patton immediately cast about for an opportunity to have his army play a more decisive part in the campaign.

The object which caught his eye was Palermo, Sicily's capital. Capture of this well-known city would not. Patton's first move was to coax Alexander into sanctioning a "reconnaissance" toward the town of Agrigento, several miles west of the 3d Division's current front line. That authorization was all General Truscott needed to seize the city on 15 July. With Agrigento in hand, Patton was in a position to drive into northwestern Sicily, and on the 17th he traveled to Alexander's headquarters to argue for just such a course.

Patton wanted to cut loose from the Eighth Army and launch his own, independent drive on Palermo while simultaneously sending Bradley's II Corps north to cut the island in two. Alexander reluctantly agreed, but later had second thoughts and sent Patton a revised set of orders instructing him to strike due north to protect Montgomery's flank rather than west. Seventh Army headquarters ignored Alexander's message claiming that it had been "garbled" in transmission, and by the time Alexander's instructions could be "clarified," Patton was already at Palermo's gates.

The Seventh Army met little opposition during its sweep through western Sicily. Guzzoni had recalled the 15th Panzer Grenadier Division to central Sicily soon after the invasion, and the only troops left in the western portion of the island were Italians who, for the most part, showed little inclination to fight. Geoffrey Keyes and sent it on a mile dash to the Sicilian capital. Palermo fell in only seventy-two hours, and by 24 July the Seventh Army had taken control of the entire western half of the island, capturing 53, dispirited Italian soldiers and vehicles at the loss of men. The fall of Palermo was quickly followed by even more startling news. Disenchanted by the long and costly war, Mussolini's opponents ousted the dictator from power on 25 July.

Mussolini's downfall did not immediately terminate Italy's participation in the war. Nevertheless, the invasion of Sicily had acted as a catalyst in bringing about an important crack in the Rome-Berlin Axis. Palermo's capitulation also coincided with the beginning of a new phase of the campaign. On 23 July Alexander ordered Patton to turn eastward toward Messina. Montgomery's drive had bogged down at Catania, and it was now apparent that the Eighth Army. Alexander, therefore, redrew the army boundaries once again, authorizing Patton to approach Messina from the west while Montgomery continued to push from the south. The drive on Messina would not resemble Patton's quick, cavalry-like raid on Palermo. The city was protected by the most rugged terrain in Sicily, the Caronie Mountains and Mount Etna's towering eminence.

In addition, the Germans had constructed a series of strongpoints, called the Etna Line, that ran from the vicinity of Catania on the east coast, around the southern base of Mount Etna, north to San Fratello on the island's northern shore. Here, in Sicily's rugged northeast corner, the Axis had decided to make its stand. But it was to be only a temporary stand, for while General Guzzoni still talked of defending Sicily to the end, Berlin had decided to withdraw gradually from the island.

Guzzoni, his authority weakened by the disintegration of most of his Italian units, was not in a position to disagree. General Hube planned to withdraw slowly to the Etna Line where he would make a determined stand while simultaneously undertaking preliminary evacuation measures. Final evacuation would occur in phases, with each withdrawal matched by a progressive retreat to increasingly shorter defensive lines until all Axis troops had been ferried across the Strait of Messina to Italy. To accomplish this task, Hube had the remnants of several Italian formations plus four German divisions—the 1st Parachute, the Hermann Goering Panzer, the 15th Panzer Grenadier, and the newly arrived 29th Panzer Grenadier Division.

There were just four narrow roads through the Etna Line, and only two of these actually went all the way to Messina. Possessing these vital arteries became the focal point of the campaign. General Alexander gave each of the Allied armies two roads for the advance on Messina. A portion of the Eighth Army was to advance along the Adrano-Randazzo road that skirted the western slopes of Mount Etna, while the remainder endeavored to drive north along the eastern coastal road, Route , to Messina. Alexander assigned the two northern roads to the American Seventh Army.

The second, Highway , hugged the northern shoreline all the way to Messina. It was Highway that held Patton's interest, for it was his most direct route to Messina. Stung by the belief that Generals Alexander and Montgomery belittled the American Army, Patton was obsessed with the idea of reaching Messina before the British. Please use your best efforts to facilitate the success of our race. The race got off to a slow start as the Germans skillfully exploited the mountainous terrain to cut the Allied advance to a crawl. Illness and the weather aided the Germans.

Malaria and other fevers incapacitated over 10, soldiers. Heat exhaustion brought on by Sicily's degree temperatures knocked additional G. The Seventh Army advanced two divisions abreast, with the 1st Infantry Division moving along Route and General Middleton's 45th Infantry Division operating on the coast road. After Middleton's G. Meanwhile, the 1st Infantry Division pushed its way eastward against stiffening German opposition, capturing Nicosia on the 28th before moving on to Troina. Patton planned to take the exhausted 1st Division out of the line once Troina fell. The mountain village, however, would prove to be the unit's toughest battle, as well as one of the most difficult fights of the entire Sicily Campaign.

Troina constituted one of the main anchors of the Etna Line and was defended by the 15th Panzer Grenadier Division and elements of the Italian Aosta Division. The Axis forces were deeply entrenched in hills that both dominated the approaches to the town and were difficult to outflank. The barren landscape, almost devoid of cover, made advancing American soldiers easy targets for Axis gunners. The battle for Troina began on 31 July, when the Germans repulsed an advance by the 39th Infantry Regiment, a 9th Infantry Division outfit temporarily attached to the 1st Division. The setback forced Bradley and Allen to orchestrate a massive assault. Over the next six days the men of the 1st Infantry Division, together with elements of the 9th Division, a French Moroccan infantry battalion, artillery pieces divided among 9 battalions of mm.

Control of key hilltop positions see-. The experience of Col. John Bowen's 26th Infantry Regiment was fairly typical of the action around Troina. The 26th's assignment was to outflank Troina by seizing Monte Basilio two miles north of town. From here, the regiment would be positioned to cut the Axis line of retreat. Bowen moved his soldiers forward on 2 August supported by the fire of 1 battalion of mm. Despite this weighty arsenal, German artillery fire and difficult terrain limited the regiment's advance to half a mile. The next morning one of the regiment's battalions lost its bearings in the hilly terrain and wandered around ineffectually for the remainder of the day.

A second battalion reached Monte Basilio with relatively little difficulty, only to be pounded by Axis artillery fire directed from neighboring hills. The th Panzer Grenadier Regiment launched a major effort to retake the mountain that afternoon, but Bowen's riflemen and machine gunners, supported by the artillerymen in the rear, repulsed the attackers. For the next two days Axis artillery and small arms fire kept the men on Monte Basilio pinned down. Determined to hold Troina for as long as possible, the Germans reacted strongly to the threat the 26th Regiment posed to their line of communications.

Axis pressure practically cut off the men on Monte Basilio from the rest of the 1st Division, and attempts to resupply them by plane were only partially successful. By 5 August food and ammunition stores were low, and casualties had greatly depleted the regiment, with one company mustering only seventeen men effective for duty. It was at this point that the German infantry attacked again, touching off another round of furious fighting. During the battle, Pvt. James W. Reese moved his mortar squad to a position from which he could effectively take the advancing German infantry under fire.

The squad maintained a steady fire on the attackers until it began to run out of ammunition. With only three mortar rounds left, Reese ordered his crew to the rear while he advanced to a new position and knocked out a German machine gun with the last rounds. He then shouldered a rifle and continued to engage the enemy until killed by a barrage of hostile fire. Through the efforts of men like Private Reese, the 26th Infantry successfully held its position. The Germans acknowledged the 26th Regiment's gallant stand by evacuating Troina later that night.

Hard pressed by American forces all along the Troina sector and unable to dislodge the 26th Regiment from its position threatening his line of retreat, General Hube withdrew the badly damaged 15th Panzer Grenadier Division toward Randazzo. As the 9th Infantry Division took up the pursuit, the 1st Division retired for a well-deserved rest. Here the 29th Panzer Grenadier Division had entrenched itself on a ridge overlooking the coastal highway. Truscott made repeated attempts to crack the San Fratello position beginning on 3 August, but failed to gain much ground. The strength of the German position prompted him to try and outflank it by an amphibious end run.

The amphibious assault force achieved complete surprise and quickly blocked the coastal highway. Unfortunately, the Germans had selected that night to withdraw from San Fratello, and most of their troops had already retired past Bernard's position by the time the Americans arrived. Nevertheless, the 3d Infantry Division's combined land and sea offensive bagged over 1, prisoners. Allied pressure at Troina, San Fratello, and in the British sector had broken the Etna Line, but there would be no lightning exploitation of the victory. Taking maximum advantage of the constricting terrain and armed with a seemingly inexhaustible supply of mines, General Hube withdrew his XIV Panzer Corps in orderly phases toward Messina.

Patton made a second bid to trap the 29th Panzer Grenadier Division on 11 August, when he sent Colonel Bernard on another amphibious end run, this time at Brolo. Once again Bernard's men achieved complete surprise, but they soon came under heavy pressure as the German units trapped by the landing tried to batter their way out. Bernard's group proved too small to keep the Germans bottled up, and by the time Truscott linked up with the landing force, the bulk of the 29th Panzer Grenadier Division had escaped. Time was now running out for the Allies. Despite heroic feats by U. Army engineers in clearing minefields and repairing blown bridges, the Seventh Army was never quite able to catch the withdrawing Axis forces. A last amphibious end run by a regiment of the 45th Division on 16 August failed when the troops landed behind American, and not German, lines.

By then the game was over. On the morning of 17 August, elements of the 3d Infantry Division's 7th Infantry Regiment entered Messina, just hours after the last Axis troops had boarded ship for Italy. The enemy had escaped, but the Seventh Army quickly brought reinforcements into the port, in the words of 3d Division assistant commander Brig. William Eagles, "to see that the British did not capture the city from us after we had taken it. Spotting General Patton, the commander of the British column walked over and offered his hand in congratulations.

The opening of the Suez Canal in created the first salt-water passage between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. The Red Sea is higher than the Eastern Mediterranean , so the canal functions as a tidal strait that pours Red Sea water into the Mediterranean. The Bitter Lakes , which are hyper-saline natural lakes that form part of the canal, blocked the migration of Red Sea species into the Mediterranean for many decades, but as the salinity of the lakes gradually equalised with that of the Red Sea, the barrier to migration was removed, and plants and animals from the Red Sea have begun to colonise the Eastern Mediterranean.

The Red Sea is generally saltier and more nutrient-poor than the Atlantic, so the Red Sea species have advantages over Atlantic species in the salty and nutrient-poor Eastern Mediterranean. Accordingly, Red Sea species invade the Mediterranean biota, and not vice versa; this phenomenon is known as the Lessepsian migration after Ferdinand de Lesseps , the French engineer or Erythrean "red" invasion. The construction of the Aswan High Dam across the Nile River in the s reduced the inflow of freshwater and nutrient-rich silt from the Nile into the Eastern Mediterranean, making conditions there even more like the Red Sea and worsening the impact of the invasive species. Invasive species have become a major component of the Mediterranean ecosystem and have serious impacts on the Mediterranean ecology, endangering many local and endemic Mediterranean species.

This makes the Canal the first pathway of arrival of alien species into the Mediterranean. The impacts of some Lessepsian species have proven to be considerable, mainly in the Levantine basin of the Mediterranean, where they are replacing native species and becoming a familiar sight. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature definition, as well as Convention on Biological Diversity CBD and Ramsar Convention terminologies, they are alien species, as they are non-native non-indigenous to the Mediterranean Sea, and they are outside their normal area of distribution which is the Indo-Pacific region.

When these species succeed in establishing populations in the Mediterranean Sea, compete with and begin to replace native species they are "Alien Invasive Species", as they are an agent of change and a threat to the native biodiversity. In the context of CBD, "introduction" refers to the movement by human agency, indirect or direct, of an alien species outside of its natural range past or present. The Suez Canal, being an artificial man made canal, is a human agency. Lessepsian migrants are therefore "introduced" species indirect, and unintentional. Whatever wording is chosen, they represent a threat to the native Mediterranean biodiversity, because they are non-indigenous to this sea. In recent years, the Egyptian government's announcement of its intentions to deepen and widen the canal have raised concerns from marine biologists , fearing that such an act will only worsen the invasion of Red Sea species into the Mediterranean, and lead to even more species passing through the canal.

In recent decades, the arrival of exotic species from the tropical Atlantic has become noticeable. Whether this reflects an expansion of the natural area of these species that now enter the Mediterranean through the Gibraltar strait, because of a warming trend of the water caused by global warming ; or an extension of the maritime traffic; or is simply the result of a more intense scientific investigation, is still an open question. While not as intense as the "Lessepsian" movement, the process may be of scientific interest and may therefore [ non sequitur ] warrant increased levels of monitoring.

By the overall level of the Mediterranean could rise between 3 to 61 cm 1. Coastal ecosystems also appear to be threatened by sea level rise , especially enclosed seas such as the Baltic , the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. These seas have only small and primarily east—west movement corridors , which may restrict northward displacement of organisms in these areas. Pollution in this region has been extremely high in recent years. One of them is the Mediterranean monk seal which is considered to be among the world's most endangered marine mammals.

The Mediterranean is also plagued by marine debris. A study of the seabed using trawl nets around the coasts of Spain, France and Italy reported a particularly high mean concentration of debris; an average of 1, items per km 2. Some of the world's busiest shipping routes are in the Mediterranean Sea. It is estimated that approximately , merchant vessels of more than tonnes cross the Mediterranean Sea each year—about one third of the world's total merchant shipping.

These ships often carry hazardous cargo, which if lost would result in severe damage to the marine environment. The discharge of chemical tank washings and oily wastes also represent a significant source of marine pollution. The Mediterranean Sea constitutes 0. It is estimated that every year between , t 98, long tons and , t , long tons of crude oil are deliberately released into the sea from shipping activities.

A major oil spill could occur at any time in any part of the Mediterranean. The coast of the Mediterranean has been used for tourism since ancient times, as the Roman villa buildings on the Amalfi Coast or in Barcola show. From the end of the 19th century, in particular, the beaches became places of longing for many Europeans and travelers. From then on, and especially after World War II, mass tourism to the Mediterranean began with all its advantages and disadvantages.

While initially, the journey was by train and later by bus or car, today the plane is increasingly used. Tourism is today one of the most important sources of income for many Mediterranean countries, despite the man-made geopolitical conflicts [ clarification needed ] in the region. The countries have tried to extinguish rising man-made chaotic zones [ clarification needed ] that might affect the region's economies and societies in neighboring coastal countries, and shipping routes. Naval and rescue components in the Mediterranean Sea are considered to be among the best [ citation needed ] due to the rapid cooperation between various naval fleets. Unlike the vast open oceans, the sea's closed position facilitates effective naval and rescue missions [ citation needed ] , considered the safest [ citation needed ] and regardless of [ clarification needed ] any man-made or natural disaster.

Tourism is a source of income for small coastal communities, including islands, independent of urban centers. However, tourism has also played major role in the degradation of the coastal and marine environment. Rapid development has been encouraged by Mediterranean governments to support the large numbers of tourists visiting the region; but this has caused serious disturbance to marine habitats by erosion and pollution in many places along the Mediterranean coasts. Tourism often concentrates in areas of high natural wealth [ clarification needed ] , causing a serious threat to the habitats of endangered species such as sea turtles and monk seals. Reductions in natural wealth may reduce the incentive for tourists to visit.

Fish stock levels in the Mediterranean Sea are alarmingly low. There are clear indications that catch size and quality have declined, often dramatically, and in many areas larger and longer-lived species have disappeared entirely from commercial catches. Large open water fish like tuna have been a shared fisheries resource for thousands of years but the stocks are now dangerously low. Ksamil Islands , Albania. Marmaris , Turquoise Coast , Turkey. Burj Islam Beach, Latakia , Syria. Old city of Ibiza Town , Spain. Sunset at the Deir al-Balah beach, Gaza Strip. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Mediterranean disambiguation. Main article: History of the Mediterranean region. Further information: European migrant crisis , List of migrant vessel incidents on the Mediterranean Sea , and Timeline of the European migrant crisis.

A satellite image showing the Mediterranean Sea. The Strait of Gibraltar appears in the bottom left north-west quarter of the image; to its left is the Iberian Peninsula in Europe , and to its right, the Maghreb in Africa. The Dardanelles strait in Turkey. The north upper side forms part of Europe the Gelibolu Peninsula in the Thrace region ; on the south lower side is Anatolia in Asia. For a more comprehensive list, see List of Mediterranean countries. For a more comprehensive list, see List of coastal settlements of the Mediterranean Sea.

Main article: List of islands in the Mediterranean. See also: Geology and paleoclimatology of the Mediterranean Basin. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Play media. Main article: Messinian salinity crisis. La Spezia. Gioia Tauro. Nemrut Bay.

See also: Environmental impact of tourism. Main article: Overfishing. Beach of Hammamet , Tunisia. Sardinia 's south coast, Italy. Panoramic view of Piran , Slovenia. Panoramic view of Cavtat , Croatia. View of Neum , Bosnia and Herzegovina. A view of Sveti Stefan , Montenegro. Europa Point , Gibraltar. Panoramic view of La Condamine , Monaco. Oceans portal. Invitation to Oceanography. ISBN Retrieved 23 October Retrieved 23 April Archived from the original on 2 December Parsi Wiki. Archived from the original PDF on 29 March Archived from the original on 15 September Sprache und Religion , Vol. Black — Encyclopaedia Iranica. Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. IV, Fasc. Oxford University Press. Doctor of Philosophy, Basel.

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Estimates of phytoplankton class-specific and total primary production in the Mediterranean Sea from satellite ocean color obser- vations : primary production in the mediterranean. Bibcode : Sedim.. Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Retrieved 5 November Bibcode : Natur. PMID S2CID Geografski Obzornik in Slovenian. ISSN Bibcode : PalOc.. Sedimentary Geology. Bibcode : SedG.. Bibcode : Geo Mammal extinctions in the Vallesian Upper Miocene. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences. Archived from the original PDF on 24 July Retrieved 4 December Retrieved 17 February Retrieved 21 April Guardian News and Media Limited.

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Archived from the original on 16 April Environmental issues". Archived from the original on 9 April United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved 1 August Washington, DC: World Bank. Il romanzo del grand tour. Countries and territories of the Mediterranean. Kosovo Northern Cyprus Palestine. Earth 's oceans and seas. Ocean Sea Seven Seas Superocean. Oceans portal Category. Marginal seas of the Atlantic Ocean. Foxe Basin. English Channel. Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela. Earth 's primary regions and subregions. Regions of Africa. Regions of Asia. Regions of Europe.

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Consists of gulfs, straits, channels and other parts that do not have the name of a specific sea. Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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